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Vesuvius

 

History and eruptions    Vesuvius Transport   On Vesuvius   Views of Vesuvius

 

History

 

Spartacus and the Battle of Vesuvius 73BC

 

The Battle of Vesuvius was the first conflict of the Third Servile War which pitted the escaped slaves against a military force (militia) specifically dispatched by Rome to deal with the rebellion.

As the revolt and raids were occurring in Campania—which was a vacation region of the rich and influential in Rome, and the location of many estates—the revolt quickly came to the attention of Roman authorities.

They initially viewed the revolt as more a major crime wave than an armed rebellion.

However, later that year (73BC), Rome dispatched military force under praetorian authority to put down the rebellion.

 A Roman praetor, Gaius Claudius Glaber, gathered a force of 3,000 men, not as legions, but as a militia "picked up in haste and at random, for the Romans did not consider this a war yet, but a raid, something like an attack of robbery."

Glaber's forces besieged the slaves on Mount Vesuvius, blocking the only known way down the mountain.

With the slaves thus contained, Glaber was content to wait until starvation forced the slaves to surrender.

While the slaves lacked military training, Spartacus' forces displayed ingenuity in their use of available local materials, and in their use of clever, unorthodox tactics when facing the disciplined Roman armies.

In response to Glaber's siege, Spartacus' men made ropes and ladders from vines and trees growing on the slopes of Vesuvius and used them to rappel down the cliffs on the side of the mountain opposite Glaber's forces.

They moved around the base of Vesuvius, outflanked the army, and annihilated Glaber's men.

 

See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Mount_Vesuvius

 

Battle of the Vesuvius 552 or 553AD

 

The Battle of Mons Lactarius (also known as Battle of the Vesuvius) took place in 552 or 553 in the course the Gothic War waged on behalf of Justinian I against the Ostrogoths in Italy.

After the Battle of Taginae, in which the Ostrogoth king Totila was killed, the Byzantine general Narses captured Rome and besieged Cumae.

Teia, the new Ostrogothic king, gathered the remnants of the Ostrogothic army and marched to relieve the siege, but in October 552 (or early 553) Narses ambushed him at Mons Lactarius (modern Monti Lattari) in Campania, near Mt. Vesuvius and Nuceria Alfaterna.

The battle lasted two days, and Teia was killed in the fighting.

Ostrogothic power in Italy was eliminated, and the remaining Ostrogoths went back north and (re)settled in south Austria.

After the battle, Italy was again invaded, this time by the Franks, but they too were defeated, and the peninsula was, for a time, reintegrated into the empire.

 

See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Mons_Lactarius

 

Mount Vesuvius

 

The cone known as Mount Vesuvius began growing in the caldera of the Mount Somma volcano, which last erupted about 17,000 years ago.

Most rocks erupted from Vesuvius are andesite, an intermediate volcanic rock (about 53-63% silica).

Andesite lava creates explosive eruptions on a variety of scales, which makes Vesuvius an especially dangerous and unpredictable volcano.

Strombolian eruptions (explosions of magma from a pool in the volcano’s conduit) and lava flows from the summit and flank fissures are relatively small.

Plinian eruptions (huge explosions that create columns of gas, ash and rock which can rise dozens of kilometres into the atmosphere) have a much greater reach, and have destroyed entire ancient cities near Vesuvius with huge ash falls and pyroclastic flows.

Vesuvius is currently quiet, with only minor seismic (earthquake) activity and outgassing from fumaroles in its summit crater, but more violent activity could resume in the future.

 

See http://geology.com/volcanoes/vesuvius/

 

The first volcanic activity

 

The first evidence of volcanic activity in this area dates back about 400,000 years ago, but the first major eruptive phenomenon of some significance occurred about 25,000 years ago: the eruption of pumice base when the top of the Somma volcano collapsed forming a caldera, in which later formed Vesuvius.

Today the caldera is only the northern side, which is Mount Somma.

 

Eruption history

 

Date

Eruption type

Notes

79

explosive

Ash-fall, pomices and lahars

c.172

uncertain

Galenus testifies that "the matter in it (Vesuvius) is still burning

203

explosive

Dio Cassius reports a violent eruption heard in Capua, some 40 km away.

6 November 472

effusive-explosive

Lava flow and lahars to north-western flank. Marcellinus Comes reported that, on the 6th November 472, "Vesuvius (...) erupted the burning interiors, caused night during the day and covered all Europe with fine ash. Ash fallout is reported as far as Constantinople.

512

explosive

The eruption is so severe that people living on its flanks are granted a tax exemption by Theodoric the Great, Ostrogoth king of Italy. His officer Cassiodorus reports ash up to the top of the trees.

26 February 685

effusive

Imposing lava flow.

787

effusive-explosive

Lahars and imposing lava flow

968

explosive

Lava flow to sea. Leo Marsicanus reports in a chronicle of the Cassino Monastery that "Mount Vesuvius exploded with flames and emitted a great amount of gluey and sulphurous matter that formed a river hurriedly flowing to the sea.

991

uncertain

 

993

uncertain

 

999

explosive

 

1007

uncertain

 

1036

effusive-explosive

 

27 January 1037

???

Lava flow to sea. Leo Marsicanus, at Cassino, refers of an eruption on the 27 of January, 1037, that lasted for six days.

1068

effusive-explosive

The chronicle of the Cassino monastery records an explosive eruption

1078

effusive-explosive

The chronicle of the Cassino monastery records an explosive eruption

29 May 1139

effusive-explosive

Ash-fall. Several sources refer to it as a strong explosive eruption (Falcone Beneventano, the Chronicle of the Monastery of Cava dei Tirreni, John of Salisbury). It lasted eight days and ashes covered Salerno, Benevento, Capua and Naples.

The volcano enters a phase of inactivity

 

In the following years it is again covered with gardens and vineyards. The interior of the crater is also filled with scrub.

1305?

uncertain

 

1500

explosive

Ash-fall. Ambrogio di Nola reports a small explosion

16 December 1631

effusive-explosive

Cone collapse; lava flow to sea. A strong explosive eruption started in the night between 15 and 16 December of 1631 and its paroxysmal stage lasted two days.

1649

effusive-explosive

 

3 July 1660

explosive

Ash-fall to north-east flank

1680

explosive

 

1682

explosive

 

1685

explosive

 

1689

explosive

 

13 April 1694

effusive

Lava towards Torre del Greco

25 May 1698

effusive-explosive

Damage by ash-fall to south-east flank

28 July 1707

effusive-explosive

-----

1714

effusive-explosive

 

1717

effusive

 

1723

effusive-explosive

 

1725

effusive

 

1728

effusive

 

1730

effusive

 

20 May 1737

effusive-explosive

A lava flow invades T. del Greco; ash-fall and lahars

1751

effusive

 

1752

effusive

 

1755

effusive

 

23 December 1760

effusive-explosive

Opening of lateral vents on southern flank (150 m. a.s.l.)

19 October 1767

effusive-explosive

Two lava flows toward T. Annunziata and S. Giorgio a C.

1771

effusive

 

1776

effusive

 

8 August 1779

explosive

Ash and bombs over Ottaviano

1785

effusive

 

15 June 1794

effusive-explosive

Opening of lateral vents on SO flank (470 m. a.s.l.)

1805

effusive

 

1810

effusive

 

1812

effusive

 

1813

effusive

 

1817

effusive

 

1820

effusive

 

22 October 1822

effusive-explosive

Two lava flows toward T. del Greco and Boscotrecase

1831

effusive

 

23 August 1834

effusive-explosive

A lava flow toward Poggiomarino

1839

effusive-explosive

 

6 February 1850

effusive-explosive

-----

1 May 1855

effusive

A lava flow invades Massa and S. Sebastiano

1858

effusive

 

8 December 1861

effusive-explosive

Opening of lateral vents on SO flank (290 m. a.s.l.)

1867

effusive

 

15 November 1868

effusive

-----

1871

effusive

 

24 April 1872

effusive-explosive

A lava flow invades Massa and S. Sebastiano. Vesuvius cone had its maximum elevation at 1335 m above sea level.

1884

effusive

 

1891

effusive

 

1895

effusive

 

1899

effusive

 

May 1905 - 4 April 1906

effusive-explosive

A lava flow toward T. Annunziata, strong explosive activity In May 1905, a new eruption began, firstly with slow lava effusions and, from January, 1906, with intermittent explosive activity (strombolian activity). On the 7th of April 1906 the eruption reached the climax with lava fountains and earthquakes. The eruptive column of ash and gas reached the height of 13000 m. The eruption ends in the last days of April. The top of Vesuvius was truncated and formed a vast crater with a diameter of approximately 500 m and a depth  of 250 m. The crater rim was lowered to 1145 m asl at its minimum height

5 July of 1913.

effusive-explosive

A prolonged period of permanent activity begins, characterized by quiet effusion of lava and minor explosion from a small conelet, slowly filled the 80 million m3 crater left by the eruption of 1906.

28 November 1926

effusive

By 28 November of 1926 the crater had been filled up to its lower edge (~1070 m) and from that time on, small lava flows descend along the slopes of the crater.

3 June 1929

effusive-explosive

A lava flow toward Terzigno. The lava flow emission was followed by a phase of lava fountaining accompanied by sustained seismic tremor.

18 March 1944

effusive-explosive

A lava flow invades Massa and S. Sebastiano. On 6 January, 1944 there was an lava flow from the conelet that rapidly reaches the border of the rim and outflows. The small lava flows continues until 26 January outside the rim and until 23 February within it. The villages of San Sebastiano al Vesuvio, Massa di Somma, Ottaviano and part of San Giorgio a Cremano are destroyed, as well as about 88 B-25 bombers of the US Air Force, while World War II continues to rage in Italy. With the destruction of the bombers of the 340th Bomb Group, based near Terzigno, the US war effort over Italy was postponed or stopped until the replacement of the aircraft.

This was the last eruption currently recorded (as at June 2018).

 

http://www.vesuvioinrete.it/e_storia.htm

https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/V%C3%A9suve

 

 

Known eruptions since 79AD

 

Since the eruption of 79, Vesuvius has erupted more than thirty times. In 203 Cassius Dio recorded it. In 472, it ejects such a volume of ash that fallout is reported as far as Constantinople. The eruption of 512 is so severe that people living on its flanks are granted a tax exemption by Theodoric the Great, Ostrogoth king of Italy. Successive eruptions occur in 685, 787, 968, 991, 999, 1007 and 1036 with the first recorded lava flow. The volcano enters a phase of inactivity at the end of the thirteenth century and the following years it is again covered with gardens and vineyards. The interior of the crater is also filled with scrub.

 

1631 marks the beginning of a new, particularly destructive and practically continuous phase, with violent eruptions in 1660, 1682, 1694, 1698, 1707, 1737, 1760, 1767, 1779, 1794, 1822, 1834, 1839, 1850, and May 1855. , 1861, 1868, 1872, April 1906, 1926, 1929, and March 1944. That of 1906 killed more than 100 people and ejected more lava than it had ever been measured during an eruption of Vesuvius.
The last major event, as of June 2018, takes place in 1944, destroying the villages of San Sebastiano al Vesuvio, Massa di Somma, Ottaviano and part of San Giorgio a Cremano, as well as about 88 B-25 bombers of the US Air Force, while World War II continues to rage in Italy. With the destruction of the bombers of the 340th Bomb Group, based near Terzigno, the US war effort over Italy was postponed or stopped until the replacement of the aircraft.

These eruptions can be classified into three categories:
• explosive eruptions: 203, 472, 512, 685, 968, 999, 1680, 1682, 1685, 1689;
• effusive eruptions: 1717, 1725, 1728, 1730, 1751, 1752, 1755, 1771, 1776, 1785, 1805, 1810, 1812, 1813, 1817, 1820, 1831, 1855, 1858, 1867, 1868, 1871, 1884, 1891, 1895, 1899, 1929;
• effusive-explosive eruptions: 1036, 1068, 1078, 1139, 1631, 1649, 1660, 1694, 1698, 1707, 1714, 1723, 1737, 1761, 1767, 1779, 1794, 1822, 1834, 1839, 1850, 1861, 1872, 1906, 1944;
• uncertain eruptive nature: 787, 991, 993, 1007, 1305, 1500.

 

Eruptions connues après 79AD

 

Depuis l'éruption de 79, le Vésuve est entré en éruption plus d'une trentaine de fois. En 203, Dion Cassius en est témoin. En 472, il éjecte un tel volume de cendre que des retombées sont rapportées aussi loin que Constantinople. L'éruption de 512 est si rude que les personnes habitant sur ses flancs se voient accorder une exemption de taxes par Théodoric le Grand, roi ostrogoth d'Italie. Des éruptions successives se déroulent en 685, 787, 968, 991, 999, 1007 et 1036 avec la première coulée de lave consignée. Le volcan entre dans une phase d'inactivité à la fin du XIIIe siècle et les années suivantes il est à nouveau recouvert de jardins et de vignobles. L'intérieur du cratère est également rempli de broussailles.

 

1631 marque le début d'une nouvelle phase particulièrement destructive et pratiquement continue, avec de violentes éruptions en 1660, 1682, 1694, 1698, 1707, 1737, 1760, 1767, 1779, 1794, 1822, 1834, 1839, 1850, mai 1855, 1861, 1868, 1872, avril 1906, 1926, 1929, et mars 1944. Celle de 1906 notamment tue plus de 100 personnes et éjecte plus de lave qu'il n'en avait jamais été mesuré lors d'une éruption du Vésuve.

Le dernier événement majeur, au jour de 2018, se déroule en 1944, détruisant les villages de San Sebastiano al Vesuvio, Massa di Somma, Ottaviano et une partie de San Giorgio a Cremano, ainsi qu'environ 88 avions bombardiers B-25 de l'US Air Force, alors que la Seconde Guerre mondiale continue à faire rage en Italie. Avec la destruction des bombardiers du 340th Bomb Group (en), basé près de Terzigno, l'effort de guerre américain au-dessus de l'Italie a été reporté ou arrêté jusqu'au remplacement des aéronefs.

 

Ces éruptions peuvent se classer en trois catégories:

Éruptions explosives : 203, 472, 512, 685, 968, 999, 1680, 1682, 1685, 1689 ;

Éruptions effusives : 1717, 1725, 1728, 1730, 1751, 1752, 1755, 1771, 1776, 1785, 1805, 1810, 1812, 1813, 1817, 1820, 1831, 1855, 1858, 1867, 1868, 1871, 1884, 1891, 1895, 1899, 1929 ;

Éruptions effusivo-explosives : 1036, 1068, 1078, 1139, 1631, 1649, 1660, 1694, 1698, 1707, 1714, 1723, 1737, 1761, 1767, 1779, 1794, 1822, 1834, 1839, 1850, 1861, 1872, 1906, 1944 ;

Nature éruptive incertaine : 787, 991, 993, 1007, 1305, 1500.

 

https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/V%C3%A9suve

 

 

Activity between 79 AD and 1631

 

During the eruption the uncle of Pliny the Younger (Pliny the Elder), admiral of the roman fleet based in Misenum, went to the rescue of the people endangered by the eruption and lost his life. We have no information on the state of Vesuvius immediately after the eruption of 79. The first account of continuing activity is from Galenus (c.172 AD) who testifies that "the matter in it (Vesuvius) is still burning". Dio Cassius in 203 AD reports a violent eruption heard in Capua, some 40 km from the volcano. Two large eruptions occurred in 472 and 512. Marcellinus Comes reported that, on the 6th of November 472, "Vesuvius (...) erupted the burning interiors, caused night during the day and covered all Europe with fine ash". Information about the eruption of 512 is more detailed. Cassiodorus, an officer of king Teodoricus, wrote a letter to ask the exemption of taxes for the people affected by the eruption; in his letter he reports that "a burnt ash flies in the sky, and, forming ashy clouds, it rains with ash droplets also in the provinces beyond the sea (...). It is possible to see ash rivers flowing like liquid, bringing hot sands and (....) the fields grow suddenly up (the fields are covered with sand) to the top of the trees (.....) and are ravished by the sudden heat". Several other eruptions are reported in 685 (Paulus Diaconus), 787 and 968.

In 968, Leo Marsicanus reports in a chronicle of the Cassino Monastery that "Mount Vesuvius exploded with flames and emitted a great amount of gluey and sulphurous matter that formed a river hurriedly flowing to the sea". Several authors report other eruptions in 991, 993 and 999 (see in Alfano, 1924) but they must be regarded as suspicious because of the belief of the end of the world in 1000 AD. Leo Marsicanus refers of another eruption on the 27 of January, 1037, that lasted for six days. The chronicle of the Cassino monastery records an explosive eruption between 1068 and 1078. The last eruption before a long quiescent period occurred on the 1st of June, 1139. Several sources refer to it as a strong explosive eruption (Falcone Beneventano, the Chronicle of the Monastery of Cava dei Tirreni, John of Salisbury). It lasted eight days and ashes covered Salerno, Benevento, Capua and Naples. No reliable report of volcanic activity is available until 1500, when Ambrogio di Nola reports a small explosion. From 1500 until to 1631, no eruption occurred on Vesuvius. Records are good during this period, and none mention volcanic activity.

 

Activity between 1631 and 1944.

 

The great eruption of 1631 was the largest explosive eruption of Mt. Vesuvius since those of 472 and 512 AD. It occurred after 131 years of quiescence. Large trees covered the Gran Cono, the cone within the Somma Caldera, and local people did not remember it being a volcano. The mountain was called "La Montagna di Somma" (the Mountain of Somma, a small town on its northern side). Several months before the beginning of the eruption, people near the volcano felt some earthquakes (Braccini, 1632). They were not particularly scared because earthquakes from the nearby Apennine chain were often felt in the area (a large one had occurred three years before in Apulia, in 1628). The seismic activity became more severe in the few days before the eruption. Nevertheless, the awakening of Vesuvius in 1631 surprised the inhabitants. A strong explosive eruption started in the night between 15 and 16 December of 1631 and its paroxysmal stage lasted two days. Between the great eruption of 1631 and 1944 Vesuvius, is almost always in activity with only brief periods of quiescence not exceeding 7 years. Major eruptions occurred in 1794, 1822, 1834, 1850 e 1872. After 1872 slow lava effusions, lasting several years formed small lava accumulation (lava domes) in the proximity of the crater. One of this, named Colle Umberto, formed between1895 and 1899 in the area between the cone and the Observatory. In 1872, after the eruption, Vesuvius cone had its maximum elevation at 1335 m. a.s.l. In May, 1905, a new eruption began, firstly with slow lava effusions and, since January, 1906, with intermittent explosive activity (strombolian activity). On the 7th of April, 1906 the eruption reached the climax with lava fountains and earthquakes. The eruptive column of ash and gas reached the height of 13000 m. The eruption ends in the last days of April.

 

During the eruption of 1906 the top of Vesuvius was truncated and formed a vast crater with a diameter of approximately 500 m and a depth  of 250 m. The crater rim was lowered to 1145 m asl at its minimum height. After the eruption there was short period of quiescence followed by a prolonged period of permanent activity from 5 July of 1913. This activity, characterized by quiet effusion of lava and minor explosion from a small conelet, slowly filled the 80 million m3 crater left by the eruption of 1906. By 28 November of 1926 the crater had been filled up to its lower edge (~1070 m) and from that time on, small lava flows descended along the slopes of the crater. In June 1929 a major lava flow extended outside the Somma caldera rim and reached the village of Terzigno on the eastern slope of the volcano. The lava flow emission was followed by a phase of lava fountaining accompanied by sustained seismic tremor. By 1944 the lava field had almost filled up all the extension of the crater up to the altitude of about 1140-1150 m. a.s.l. Only a few remains of the original crater were visible especially on the south-western rim , where was located the highest point of the crater at 1186 m. a.s.l. The conelet, built at the centre of the lava field, had reached an height of ~1260 m. a.s.l. On 6 January, 1944 there was an lava flow from the conelet that rapidly reaches the border of the rim and outflows. The small lava flows continued until 26 January outside the rim and until 23 February within it. On that day the activity ends. The eruption of Mt. Vesuvius of March 1944, is the last eruption occurred at Vesuvius. Since then the volcano has been in a quiescent stage without any major sign of activity.

 

http://www.vesuvioinrete.it/e_storia.htm

 

Vesuvius Eruptions, lava flows from 1631 to 26 April 1872. From Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1885. 
Click here for a Larger resolution version or click on the photograph.

Vesuvius Eruptions, lava flows from 1631 to 26 April 1872. From Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1885.

Click here for a Larger resolution version of the photograph.

 

Vesuvius and its eruptions in paintings and photographs

 

Vesuvius Eruption 79AD. L’ultimo giorno di Pompei by Jacob More 1780.

Vesuvius Eruption 79AD. L’ultimo giorno di Pompei by Jacob More 1780.

 

Vesuvius 472AD. Photo courtesy of Vesuvioweb.

Vesuvius 472AD. Photo courtesy of Vesuvioweb.

 

Vesuvius Eruption, 16th December 1631 by Joachim von Sandrart and Matthias Merian in Dankaerts Historis 1642.

Vesuvius Eruption, 16th December 1631 by Joachim von Sandrart and Matthias Merian in Dankaerts Historis 1642.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1631. Portici. Lapide in ricordo dell'eruzione del Vesuvio del 1631.
Memorial in Portici in remembrance of the eruption of Vesuvius of 1631.

Vesuvius Eruption 1631. Portici. Lapide in ricordo dell'eruzione del Vesuvio del 1631.

Memorial in Portici in remembrance of the eruption of Vesuvius of 1631.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1631. The epitaph in Portici commemorating the eruption of Vesuvius in 1631.
On the memorial is the inscription.

Posteri Posteri

Vestra res agitvr dies facem praefert diei nvdivs perendino
advortite 

Vicies ab satv solis in fabvlatvr historia 
arsit Vesaevvs 
immani semper clade haesitantivm 
ne posthac incertos occvpet moneo 
vtervm gerit mons hic 
bitvmine alvmine ferro svlphvre avro argento 
nitro aqvarvm fontibvs gravem 

serivs ocyvs ignescet pelagoq inflvente pariet 
sed ante partvrit 
concvtitvr concvtitq solvm 
fvmigat corsvcat flammigerat
qvatit aerem 

horrendvm immvgit boat tonat arcet finibvs accolas 
emica dvm licet
Iam iam enititvr ervmpit mixtvm igne lacvm evomit 
praecipiti rvit ille lapsv seramq fvgam praevertit 
si corripit actvm est periisti 

Ann Sal MDCXXXI XVI KAL JAN
Philippo IV rege 
Emmanvele Fonseca et Zvnica Comite Montis regii 
pro rege 

Repetita svperiorvm temporvm calamitate svbsidiisq calamitatis 
hvmanivs qvo mvnificentivs 
formidatvs servavit spretvs oppressit incavtos et avidos 
qvibvs lar et svppellex vita potior 
tvm tv si sapis avdi clamantem lapidem 
sperne larem sperne sarcinvlas mora nvlla fvge 

Antonio Svares Messia Marchione Vici
Praefecto Viarvm

See https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eruzione_del_Vesuvio_del_1631

Vesuvius Eruption 1631. The epitaph in Portici commemorating the eruption of Vesuvius in 1631.

On the memorial is the inscription.

 

POSTERI POSTERI


VESTRA RES AGITVR DIES FACEM PRAEFERT DIEI NVDIVS PERENDINO
ADVORTITE

 

VICIES AB SATV SOLIS IN FABVLATVR HISTORIA
ARSIT VESAEVVS
IMMANI SEMPER CLADE HAESITANTIVM
NE POSTHAC INCERTOS OCCVPET MONEO
VTERVM GERIT MONS HIC
BITVMINE ALVMINE FERRO SVLPHVRE AVRO ARGENTO
NITRO AQVARVM FONTIBVS GRAVEM

 

SERIVS OCYVS IGNESCET PELAGOQ INFLVENTE PARIET
SED ANTE PARTVRIT
CONCVTITVR CONCVTITQ SOLVM
FVMIGAT CORSVCAT FLAMMIGERAT
QVATIT AEREM

 

HORRENDVM IMMVGIT BOAT TONAT ARCET FINIBVS ACCOLAS
EMICA DVM LICET
IAM IAM ENITITVR ERVMPIT MIXTVM IGNE LACVM EVOMIT
PRAECIPITI RVIT ILLE LAPSV SERAMQ FVGAM PRAEVERTIT
SI CORRIPIT ACTVM EST PERIISTI

 

ANN SAL MDCXXXI XVI KAL JAN
PHILIPPO IV REGE
EMMANVELE FONSECA ET ZVNICA COMITE MONTIS REGII
PRO REGE

 

REPETITA SVPERIORVM TEMPORVM CALAMITATE SVBSIDIISQ CALAMITATIS
HVMANIVS QVO MVNIFICENTIVS
FORMIDATVS SERVAVIT SPRETVS OPPRESSIT INCAVTOS ET AVIDOS
QVIBVS LAR ET SVPPELLEX VITA POTIOR
TVM TV SI SAPIS AVDI CLAMANTEM LAPIDEM
SPERNE LAREM SPERNE SARCINVLAS MORA NVLLA FVGE

 

ANTONIO SVARES MESSIA MARCHIONE VICI
PRAEFECTO VIARVM

 

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1631. The epitaph for the people who died because of the eruption of Vesuvius in 1631 on the villa of Faraone Mennella in Torre del Greco.
It mentions POMPEIOS and HERCVLANVM long before they were rediscovered.
Photo courtesy of Andreas Tschurilow.

Vesuvius Eruption 1631. The epitaph for the people who died because of the eruption of Vesuvius in 1631 on the villa of Faraone Mennella in Torre del Greco.

It mentions POMPEIOS and HERCVLANVM long before they were rediscovered.

Photo courtesy of Andreas Tschurilow.

The inscription reads

 

AT O

VIII ET LX POST ANNO XVII CALEND(AS) IANUARII

PHILIPPO IV REGE

FUMO FLAMMIS BOATU

CONCUSSU CINERE ERUPTIONE

HORRIFICUS FERUS SI UMQUAM VESUVIUS

NEC NOMEN NEC FASCES TANTI VIRI EXTIMUIT

QUIPPE EXARDESCENTE CAVIS SPECUBUS IGNE

IGNITUS FURENS IRRU

GIENS

EXITUM ELUCTANS COERCITUS AER

DISIECTO VIOLENTER MONTIS CULMINE

IMMANI ERUPIT HIATU POSTRIDIE

EIACULATUS TRANS HELLESPONTUM CINEREM

PONE TRAHENS AD EXPLENDAM VICEM PELAGUS

IMMITE PELAGUS

FLUVIOS SULPHUREOS FLAMMATUM BITUMEN

FOETAS ALUMINE CAUTES

INFORME CUIUSQUE METALLI RUDUS

MIXTUM AQUARUM VOLUMINIBUS IGNEM

FERVENTEMQ(UE) UNDANTE FUMO CINEREM

SESEQ(UE) FUNESTAMQ(UE) COLLUVIEM

IUGO MONTIS EXONERANS

POMPEIOS HERCULANUM OCTAVIANUM

PERSTRICTIS REATINA ET PORTICU

SILVASQ(UE) VILLASQ(UE) AEDESQ(UE)

MOMENTO STRAVIT USSIT DIRUIT

LUCTUOSAM PRAE SE PRAEDAM AGENS

VASTUMQ(UE) TRIUMPHUM

PERIERAT HOC QUOQ(UE) MARMOR ALTE SEPULTUM

CONSULTISSIMI MONUMENTUM PROREGIS

NE PEREAT

EMMAHUEL FONSECA ET ZUNICA COM(ES) MONT(IS) RE(GIS) PROR(EX)

QUA ANIMI MAGNITUDINE PUBLICAE CALAMITATI

EA PRIVATAE CONSULUIT

EXTRACTUM FUNDITUS GENTILIS SUI LAPIDEM

COELO RESTITUIT VIAM RESTAURAVIT

FUMANTE ADHUC ET INDIGNANTE VESEVO

AN(NO) SAL(UTIS) MDCXXXV

PRAEFECTO VIARUM

ANTONIO SUARES MESSIA MARCH(IONE) VICI

 

 

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1631. The coast of the Bay of Naples after the eruption.
Mascoli, G. B. 1633. De incendio vesuvii excitato XVLJ. Napoli.

Vesuvius Eruption 1631. The coast of the Bay of Naples after the eruption.

Mascoli, G. B. 1633. De incendio vesuvii excitato XVLJ. Napoli.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1631. Processione di San Gennaro per l’eruzione del 1631 by Micco Spadaro.

Vesuvius Eruption 1631. Processione di San Gennaro per l’eruzione del 1631 by Micco Spadaro.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1631. L’eruzione del 1631 da Didier Barra (1590-1652) .
The eruption of 1631 by Didier Barra (1590-1652).

Vesuvius Eruption 1631. L’eruzione del 1631 da Didier Barra (1590-1652).

The eruption of 1631 by Didier Barra (1590-1652).

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1638 as seen by Athanasius Kircher. From Kircher A., 1664. Mundus Subterraneus.

Vesuvius Eruption 1638 as seen by Athanasius Kircher. From Kircher A., 1664. Mundus Subterraneus.

 

Vesuvius Eruption October 1667. View from the west at the end of the Eruption.

Vesuvius Eruption October 1667. View from the west at the end of the Eruption.

 

Vesuvius 1747 from The Gentleman's Magazine September 1747 p. 419-420.

Vesuvius 1747 from The Gentleman's Magazine September 1747 p. 419-420.

 

Vesuvius 1759. Partenza di Carlo III da Napoli nell’agosto 1759 per Antonio Joli.
Departure of Charles III from Naples in August 1759, with smoking Vesuvius in background. Painting by Antonio Joli.
On the death of his half-brother Ferdinand VI in 1759 who died without issue, Charles was called to succeed him on the throne of Spain.
©Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid.

Vesuvius 1759. Partenza di Carlo III da Napoli nell’agosto 1759 per Antonio Joli.

Departure of Charles III from Naples in August 1759, with smoking Vesuvius in background. Painting by Antonio Joli.

On the death of his half-brother Ferdinand VI in 1759, who died without issue, Charles was called to succeed him on the throne of Spain.

©Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1760 1761. Mount Vesuvius: a volcanic eruption at the foot of the mountain, 1760-1761, causing the destruction of the land and property.
Coloured etching by Pietro Fabris, 1776, after his drawing, 1760-1761. 
See Hamilton Sir W., 1776. Campi Phlegraei. Naples: vol. 1, plate XII.
See original on https://wellcomecollection.org/

Vesuvius Eruption 1760 1761. Mount Vesuvius: a volcanic eruption at the foot of the mountain, 1760-1761, causing the destruction of the land and property.

Coloured etching by Pietro Fabris, 1776, after his drawing, 1760-1761.

See Hamilton Sir W., 1776. Campi Phlegraei. Naples: vol. 1, plate XII.

See original on https://wellcomecollection.org/

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1767. Mount Vesuvius in eruption in 1767, from the mole at Naples. 
Coloured mezzotint by Pietro Fabris, 1776, after his painting, 1767.
See original on https://wellcomecollection.org/

Vesuvius Eruption 1767. Mount Vesuvius in eruption in 1767, from the mole at Naples.

Coloured mezzotint by Pietro Fabris, 1776, after his painting, 1767.

See original on https://wellcomecollection.org/

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1767 from Portici.

Vesuvius Eruption 1767 from Portici.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1767 from Torre Annunziata.

Vesuvius Eruption 1767 from Torre Annunziata.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1767. Padre Rocco predica dinanzi al simulacro di San Gennaro sul ponte della Maddalena.
Fr. Rocco preaches before the image of San Gennaro on the bridge of Maddalena.

Vesuvius Eruption 1767. Padre Rocco predica dinanzi al simulacro di San Gennaro sul ponte della Maddalena.

Fr. Rocco preaches before the image of San Gennaro on the bridge of Maddalena.

 

Vesuvius Eruption May 9th 1771 with lava flowing towards Resina.

Vesuvius Eruption May 9th, 1771, with lava flowing towards Resina.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1771. L'éruption du Vésuve by Pierre-Jacques Volaire.
Now in Musée des Beaux-Arts de Brest.

Vesuvius Eruption 1771. L'éruption du Vésuve by Pierre-Jacques Volaire.

Now in Musée des Beaux-Arts de Brest.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1774 by J. P. Hackert.

Vesuvius Eruption 1774 by J. P. Hackert.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1774 from Portici by Joseph Wright of Derby.
Now in Huntington Library in Pasadena, CA.

Vesuvius Eruption 1774 from Portici by Joseph Wright of Derby.

Now in Huntington Library in Pasadena, CA.

 

Vesuvius Eruption August 8th 1779 from Posilipo.

Vesuvius Eruption August 8th, 1779 from Posilipo.

 

Vesuvius Eruption August 8th 1779 from Santa Lucia al Mare.

Vesuvius Eruption August 8th, 1779 from Santa Lucia al Mare.

 

Vesuvius Eruption August 8th 1779 from the summit of Somma to the banda di Tramontana.

Vesuvius Eruption August 8th, 1779 from the summit of Somma to the banda di Tramontana.

 

Vesuvius Eruption August 8th 1779.

Vesuvius Eruption August 8th, 1779.

 

Vesuvius Eruption August 9th 1779 from Santa Lucia.

Vesuvius Eruption August 9th, 1779 from Santa Lucia.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1779 The eruption of Mount Vesuvius in the night of 8th August 1779. 
Coloured etching by Pietro Fabris, 1779. 
See original on https://wellcomecollection.org/

Vesuvius Eruption 1779 The eruption of Mount Vesuvius in the night of 8th August 1779.

Coloured etching by Pietro Fabris, 1779.

See original on https://wellcomecollection.org/

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1779.

Vesuvius Eruption 1779.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1782-90. Eruzione del Vesuvio dal ponte della Maddalena by P. J. Antoine Volaire.
Eruption of Vesuvius from the Bridge of La Maddalena by P. J. Antoine Volaire.
Oil painting on canvas. Now in the Museo di San Martino, Napoli.

Vesuvius Eruption 1782-90. Eruzione del Vesuvio dal ponte della Maddalena by P. J. Antoine Volaire.

Eruption of Vesuvius from the Bridge of La Maddalena by P. J. Antoine Volaire.

Oil painting on canvas. Now in the Museo di San Martino, Napoli.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1794 con la processione dell’Immacolata by Alessandro d’Anna.

Vesuvius Eruption 1794 con la processione dell’Immacolata by Alessandro d’Anna.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1794 by Della Gatta.

Vesuvius Eruption 1794 by Della Gatta.

 

Vesuvius Eruption June 5 1794 from Miscellanies XX 1810.

Vesuvius Eruption June 5 1794 from Miscellanies XX 1810.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1794. The Destruction of Torre del Greco. Naples School.

Vesuvius Eruption 1794. The Destruction of Torre del Greco. Naples School.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1806. Eruzione dell’Anno 1806, attributed to Girolano Gianni (1837-1895).

Vesuvius Eruption 1806. Eruzione dell’Anno 1806, attributed to Girolano Gianni (1837-1895).

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1812, painting by Camillo de Vito, Naples.

Vesuvius Eruption 1812, painting by Camillo de Vito, Naples.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1813, Naples School. Adolphe Chevandier?

Vesuvius Eruption 1813, Naples School. Adolphe Chevandier?

 

Vesuvius c.1813-1815. Blick auf den Golf von Neapel von Joseph Rebell
View of the Gulf of Naples by Joseph Rebell.
Now in the Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe.

Vesuvius c.1813-1815. Blick auf den Golf von Neapel von Joseph Rebell

View of the Gulf of Naples by Joseph Rebell.

Jetzt in Die Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1817, painting by Turner.

Vesuvius Eruption 1817, painting by Turner.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1820, painting by Camillo de Vito, Naples.

Vesuvius Eruption 1820, painting by Camillo de Vito, Naples.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1822 from Naples.

Vesuvius Eruption 1822 from Naples.

 

Vesuvius Eruption October 1822 from Naples by George Poulett Scrope.

Vesuvius Eruption October 1822 from Naples by George Poulett Scrope.

 

Vesuvius Eruption March 21 1828 by Michela de Vito.

Vesuvius Eruption March 21 1828 by Michela de Vito.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1832, painting by Camillo de Vito, Naples.

Vesuvius Eruption 1832, painting by Camillo de Vito, Naples.

 

Vesuvius 1834 in antique print.

Vesuvius 1834 in antique print.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1839. Painting by Naples School of the interior of Vesuvius.

Vesuvius Eruption 1839. Painting by Naples School of the interior of Vesuvius.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1850 from Ottaviano. Giorgio Sommer n. 754.

Vesuvius Eruption 1850 from Ottaviano. Giorgio Sommer n. 754.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1850 from Ottaviano. Giorgio Sommer.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1858. Artist unknown.

 

Vesuvius. December 1861 eruption. Stereoview by Sommer and Behles. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.
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Vesuvius. December 1861 eruption. Stereoview by Sommer and Behles. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

 

Vesuvius. 1865 eruption. Stereoview by Sommer and Behles. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.
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Vesuvius. 1865 eruption. Stereoview by Sommer and Behles. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

 

Vesuvius. Lava del Vesuvio, by Giorgio Sommer no. 293. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.
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Vesuvius. Lava del Vesuvio, by Giorgio Sommer no. 293. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

 

Vesuvius Eruption April 26th, 1872 at 3pm. Photo by Giorgio Sommer, No. 6102.

Vesuvius Eruption April 26th, 1872 at 3pm. Photo by Giorgio Sommer, No. 6102.

 

Vesuvius Eruption April 26th, 1872 at 3.30pm. Photo by Giorgio Sommer, No. 6103.

Vesuvius Eruption April 26th, 1872 at 3.30pm. Photo by Giorgio Sommer, No. 6103.

 

Vesuvius eruption April 26th, 1872. Hand coloured bromide silver on glass slide version by Giorgio Sommer of his photo 2503.
Photo courtesy Wikimedia Commons Sommer_2503_-_Vesuvio_eruzione_1872,_diapositiva

Vesuvius eruption April 26th, 1872. Hand coloured bromide silver on glass slide version by Giorgio Sommer of his photo 2503.

Photo courtesy Wikimedia Commons Sommer_2503_-_Vesuvio_eruzione_1872,_diapositiva

 

Vesuvius Eruption April 26th, 1872.

Vesuvius Eruption April 26th, 1872.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1872 by Oswald Achenbach 1890.

Vesuvius Eruption 1872 by Oswald Achenbach 1890.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1888, seen smoking from central cone.

Vesuvius Eruption 1888, seen smoking from central cone.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1903 seen smoking from port of Torre Annunziata.

Vesuvius Eruption 1903 seen smoking from port of Torre Annunziata.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1906. Vesuvius summit just before its eruption.

Vesuvius Eruption 1906. Vesuvius summit just before its eruption.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1906. Vesuvius summit after the eruption.

Vesuvius Eruption 1906. Vesuvius summit after the eruption.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1906 from Maurys New Elements Geography 1907.

Vesuvius Eruption 1906 from Maurys New Elements Geography 1907.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 13th April 1906 on Fumagalli postcard.

Vesuvius Eruption 13th April 1906 on Fumagalli postcard.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1906.

Vesuvius Eruption 1906.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 1913. Old postcard showing new crater at the bottom of the chasm.

Vesuvius Eruption 1913. Old postcard showing new crater at the bottom of the chasm.

 

Vesuvius Eruption pre-1923. Lantern slide in Brooklyn Museum NY USA.

Vesuvius Eruption pre-1923. Lantern slide in Brooklyn Museum NY USA.

 

Vesuvius from the air “in one of its slumbering moments”. Press photo dated 10th April 1923 on rear.
Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.
On the back it says: “An airplane view of Vesuvius. 
This striking view, taken from an airplane, shows Mt. Vesuvius in one of its slumbering moments with just a wisp of steam coming from the crater”.
[1923] press photo [04-10-1923] [a]

Vesuvius from the air “in one of its slumbering moments”. Press photo dated 10th April 1923 on rear.
Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

On the back it says: “An airplane view of Vesuvius.

This striking view, taken from an airplane, shows Mt. Vesuvius in one of its slumbering moments with just a wisp of steam coming from the crater”.

 

Vesuvius eruption 6th July 1924, Old postcard showing central crater with lava flows from the south.

Vesuvius eruption 6th July 1924, Old postcard showing central crater with lava flows from the south.

 

Vesuvius.1929 press photo. Vesuvius again in eruption - Lava threatens towns of Terzigno, Bosco and Trecase.
Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.
On the rear of the photo it says
“Vesuvius again in eruption - Lava threatens towns.
Naples, Italy. Derzigno, Bosco, and Crecase, three towns on the side of Mt. Vesuvius, located with a mile of the central crater of the volcano, are reported as in the path of a towering wall of incandescent lava, that is pushing down Vesuvius side as a result of a new eruptive ……..”
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Vesuvius.1929 press photo. Vesuvius again in eruption - Lava threatens towns of Terzigno, Bosco and Trecase.
Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

On the rear of the photo it says

“Vesuvius again in eruption - Lava threatens towns.

Naples, Italy. Derzigno, Bosco, and Crecase, three towns on the side of Mt. Vesuvius, located with a mile of the central crater of the volcano, are reported as in the path of a towering wall of incandescent lava, that is pushing down Vesuvius side as a result of a new eruptive ……..”

 

Vesuvius, 25th June 1929 press photo. Vesuvius in eruption. On the rear of the photo it says:
“Vesuvius in eruption. Our picture shows a close up of molten lava being thrown from the crater of the volcano.”
Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.
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Vesuvius, 25th June 1929 press photo. Vesuvius in eruption. On the rear of the photo it says:

“Vesuvius in eruption. Our picture shows a close up of molten lava being thrown from the crater of the volcano.”
Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

 

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Vesuvius. 30th July 1930 press photo. New crater formed on Mt. Vesuvius.
On the rear of the photo it says:

“New crater formed on Mt. Vesuvius.

A new cone formed by the strange lava which has come forth from Mt. Vesuvius during its recent eruptions.

Volcano eruptions were followed by earthquakes which took toll of 15,000 lives in Italian cities”.

Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

 

Vesuvius. 1st August 1930 press photo. New crater formed on Vesuvius. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.
On the rear of the photo it says:
“New crater formed on Vesuvius.
An observer from the Mt. Vesuvius observatory examining the lava of the new crater recently formed by violent eruptions of Mount Vesuvius which were followed by
earthquakes which took a toll of more than 15,000 lives”.
[1930] press photo 1930-08-01 [a1]

Vesuvius. 1st August 1930 press photo. New crater formed on Vesuvius. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

On the rear of the photo it says:

“New crater formed on Vesuvius.

An observer from the Mt. Vesuvius observatory examining the lava of the new crater recently formed by violent eruptions of Mount Vesuvius which were followed by

earthquakes which took a toll of more than 15,000 lives”.

 

Vesuvius Eruption, May 1933. Old postcard with title - Napoli, Vesuvio, Esplosione di Lava, Maggio 1933.

Vesuvius Eruption, May 1933. Old postcard with title - Napoli, Vesuvio, Esplosione di Lava, Maggio 1933.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 23rd March 1944. 340th Bombardment Group B-25 Mitchell covered with ash from Eruption.

 

Vesuvius Eruption 23rd March 1944. 340th Bombardment Group B-25 Mitchell covered with ash from Eruption.

 

Vesuvius Eruption March 1944, USAF photo.

Vesuvius Eruption March 1944, USAF photo.

 

Vesuvius Eruption. Vesuvio in Eruzione. Old postcard.

Vesuvius Eruption. Date unknown. Vesuvio in Eruzione. Painting shown on Old postcard.

 

 

History and eruptions    Vesuvius Transport   On Vesuvius   Views of Vesuvius

 

 

 

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Ultimo aggiornamento - Last updated: 22-Oct-2018 14:43