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14. Pompeii (formerly Boscoreale), Villa del fondo Ippolito Zurlo.

Excavated 1897 by Vincenzo De Prisco.

Location.

In contrada Giuliana at Boscoreale (today in Pompei).

The archaeological site was located in a side street of via Grotta II.

According to the C.T.P. map, this would have been between the railway line (on its west) and the main road from Scafati to Boscoreale.

The villa was re-buried after the excavation of 1897.

Excavation.

In 1895 Sig. Ippolito Zurlo came across some remains of ancient buildings while doing some farm work in a fondo he owned, located in the contrada known as Giuliana in Boscoreale.

He did not have the proper permission, so he was obliged to desist from any further excavation work.

Meanwhile he had already brought to light a lararium and niche which gave the opportunity for further investigation carried out by Sig. Vincenzo De Prisco in 1897.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1895, pp. 214-215; 1897, pp.391ff.

According to the SANP web site, this villa rustica with stately rooms (triclinium, cubicula) was decorated with paintings of IV style and had a small domestic shrine.

In the rustic sector were the cella vinaria and the torcularium near to which a painting depicting Bacchus and Silenus was found.

Some wall decorations have been preserved in the Louvre in Paris and the British Museum in London.

Bibliography

Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1895, pp. 214-215; 1897, pp.391ff.

Carrington R., 1931. Studies in the Campanian Villae Rusticae: Journal of Roman Studies, 21, pp. 121 (n. 14) and note 9, p. 123, 128 and note 4, 5, 6, p.129.

Casale A., Bianco A., Primo contributo alla topografia del suburbio pompeiano: Supplemento al n. 15 di ANTIQUA ottobre-dicembre 1979, p. 41-2, no. 66, fig. 18.

Crova B., 1942. Edilizia e tecnica rurale di Roma antica, Milano, pp. 76ff., fig. 9.

Day J., 1932. Agriculture in the life of Pompeii: Yale Classical Studies, 3, Tav. A, B, c. n. 14 .

Fabbricotti E., 1976. I bagni nelle prime ville romane: Cronache Pompeiane, 2, p. 36, fig. 3.

Notizie in Bolletino d’Arte, Anno IV, Marzo 1910, p. 124.

Rostovzev M., 1973. Storia economica e sociale dell'Impero romano, 5° ediz., Firenze, p. 33, nota 26, n. 14.

Van der Poel, H. B., 1981. Corpus Topographicum Pompeianum, Part V. Austin: University of Texas. p.22 and map.

 

Plan.

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. 1897 plan of villa. Sig. Vincenzo De Prisco from 1st March 1897 undertook the excavation following ministerial authorisation. According to Sogliano, if by the richness and for the importance of the finds, the current excavation does not compare at all with the other excavation of De Prisco (Villa of Pisanella), nevertheless the complex of ancient buildings excavated is important for the ancient topography of the Vesuvian area and for the knowledge of ancient roman villas. Sogliano thought rooms "A-D" were undoubtedly part of the dwelling of the owner and the remaining rooms "E-V" were destined for rustic use. See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, p. 391-2, fig. 1.

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. 1897 plan of villa.

Sig. Vincenzo De Prisco from 1st March 1897 undertook the excavation following ministerial authorisation.

 

Rooms.

According to Sogliano, if by the richness and for the importance of the finds, the current excavation does not compare at all with the other excavation of De Prisco (Villa of Pisanella), nevertheless the complex of ancient buildings excavated is important for the ancient topography of the Vesuvian area and for the knowledge of ancient roman villas.

Sogliano thought rooms "A-D" were undoubtedly part of the dwelling of the owner and the remaining rooms "E-V" were destined for rustic use.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, p. 391-2, fig. 1.

 

Entrances a, b, D?

Sogliano could not say with certainty from what part the main entrance of the villa opened.  The rooms not yet disinterred opened on the south side at “a”, which led into the southern portico "E"; but, on the north side, there was another room "b", protected externally by a lean-to-roof, and outside of which it seemed that the building did not continue. In addition, considering that the room "b" was at the level of the area of the peristyle, and that it opened near to the granary "S", the threshing room “T” and straw storage room “V", it is not unlikely to suppose that it would have been the entrance area for the carts.  On the other hand do not know if the small portico "D" was in connection with the main entrance, or not.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, p. 392.

 

Sacrarium A

This was entered solely from the portico "D", going up one step of lava, approximately 10 cm higher than the floor level of the room, which was at a lower level to that of room "B". To the right of the entrance doorway, embedded in the wall was a niche, 0.45m high, 0.50m wide and 0.25m deep, faced with crushed brick plaster (mattone pesto) and below it, there was a projection which was formed by the use of a roofing tile.

 

This eastern wall, was divided into three zones, one at the height of a man’s chest, the upper zone, and the lower zone or zoccolo. The area at the height of the man’s chest and the zoccolo were coated with brick plaster, the upper zone was of white-washed plaster. In the central zone and zoccolo, were three panels separated by reddish-brown bands: the vertical bands of the middle zone finished at the top in a small capital without shading. In the central panel of the middle zone was a gold candelabra, surmounted by a ball, illuminated with white; in the right side panel was the above mentioned niche, framed with band also of reddish-brown, and in the left side panel could be seen a flying swan, in green and deep red. In the zoccolo, the main compartment was empty; the sides were decorated with plants. In the centre of the upper area was a slit window, 0.77m high, 0.29m wide, surrounded by a reddish-brown frame, whose left side fell sheer by the pillar or vertical band of the lower panel: to the left were garlands of flowers, to the right, similar garlands in a panel the same as to the lower panel, but with a yellow dividing pillar.

 

The west wall was equally decorated, except for the representation of a swan on each side of the central zone and the presence of a second yellow column in the upper part, whose middle compartment had, high up, a trophy (a shield, two spears and a red mantle); at the bottom was a small zoccolo, a landscape with villa, vanished. Against this wall was a shallow structure, "e", 0.40m high, 0.39m long, and 0.36m wide, coated with brick plaster (mattone pesto).

 

In the northern wall, diagonally opposite the entrance doorway was a high platform "c", plastered in red. The wall was decorated at the top with ashlars made from red fillets; and, below it was divided into three panels by the usual brown bands. In front of the platform, was the circular masonry altar “d”, faced with brick-plaster and decorated with garlands, on which was embedded a large clay basin (diam. 0.52m.), containing ash.  On the left of the wall, near the platform “c”, traces of an imprint of wood were seen.

 

The decoration of the south or entrance door wall was similar to that of the east and west walls.

 

It was not easy to determine the use of the described room; but how it was arranged and mainly by the presence of the altar located in front of the bench, Sogliano was inclined to recognise a domestic shrine. And although true that it lacked any trace of a sacred painting; on the other hand, one could assume that the statues of the household gods and Lares, exposed on the bench for the worship of the inhabitants, would have been taken away at the moment of the catastrophe. 

Found on the 18th March were: 

Bronze: a lock. 

Glass: Five perfume bottles.

Terracotta: Five small plates, a small lid and two lamps, one of which had a Cupid in relief on the disc.

 

Room B

This was probably a triclinium with its entrance doorway under the east portico of the peristyle "E".

 

The left or north wall was decorated with a red panel between two yellow panels, and separated from these by two large white bands, in which was painted a high stem, around which a branch meandered gracefully.  An ancient opening broke the central panel, depicting a fisherman’s basket with oysters. In the side panels, were two landscapes (0.32 high and 0.61 wide) depicting a building with a nearby walled garden: a cornucopia was placed on the highest point of the building.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, p. 394.

 

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. Room B triclinium. North wall. 
Landscape depicting a building with a nearby walled garden.
A cornucopia is on the highest point of the building. Size 0.32m high and 0.61m wide.
Photo © Trustees of the British Museum. Inventory number 1899.2-15.3.
See Landscape with building at britishmuseum.org
See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, p. 394.

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. Room B triclinium. North wall.

Landscape depicting a building with a nearby walled garden.

A cornucopia is on the highest point of the building. Size 0.32m high and 0.61m wide.

Photo © Trustees of the British Museum. Inventory number 1899.2-15.3.

See Landscape with building at britishmuseum.org

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, p. 394.

 

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. 1897. Room B triclinium. East wall. A window opened in the rear or east wall, under which a white band or pillar with green flowers was painted, this separated the two yellow panels. In the left yellow panel, (east wall) was a landscape (0.32m high and 0.61m wide) showing fishing with the net. Three men are busy pulling the net while in the sea you could see two boats with oars. See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, p. 394, fig. 2.

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. 1897. Room B triclinium. East wall.

A window opened in the rear or east wall, under which a white band or pillar with green flowers was painted, this separated the two yellow panels.

In the left yellow panel, (east wall) was a landscape (0.32m high and 0.61m wide) showing fishing with the net.

Three men are busy pulling the net while in the sea you could see two boats with oars.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, p. 394, fig. 2.

 

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. Room B triclinium. East wall left yellow panel.
Painting of fishing with the net: three sailors are busy pulling the net while in the sea you could see two boats with oars. 
Size 0.32m high and 0.61m wide.
Now in the Louvre. Inventory number P25. 
Photo © RMN-Grand Palais (musée du Louvre) / Hervé Lewandowski.
See Paysage Maritime on rmn.fr

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. Room B triclinium. East wall left yellow panel.

Painting of fishing with the net: three sailors are busy pulling the net while in the sea you could see two boats with oars.

Size 0.32m high and 0.61m wide.

Now in the Louvre. Inventory number P25.

Photo © RMN-Grand Palais (musée du Louvre) / Hervé Lewandowski.

See Paysage Maritime on rmn.fr

 

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. 1897. Room B triclinium. East wall. According to Sogliano, in the right yellow panel, (east wall) was painting of a river view. On the front bank of the river was, towards the left, a building and to the right, a bridge, on which sat a fisherman. 
Two sailboats were in the river or pond. See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, p. 395, fig. 3.

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. 1897. Room B triclinium. East wall.

According to Sogliano, in the right yellow panel, (east wall) was a painting of a river view.

On the front bank of the river was, towards the left, a building and to the right, a bridge, on which sat a fisherman.

Two sailboats were in the river or pond.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, p. 395, fig. 3.

 

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. Room B triclinium. East wall. 
Painting of a coastal view with a building, a bridge on which sat a fisherman, and two boats. 
Photo © Trustees of the British Museum. Inventory number 1899.215.2.
See Coastal landscape with boat at britishmuseum.org

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. Room B triclinium. East wall.

Painting of a coastal view with a building, a bridge on which sat a fisherman, and two boats.

Photo © Trustees of the British Museum. Inventory number 1899.215.2.

See Coastal landscape with boat at britishmuseum.org

 

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. 1897. Room B triclinium. South wall. According to Sogliano, The right or south wall was similar in decoration to the opposite wall. In the centre red panel, were eel and other fish. In the yellow panel on the left, (south wall) was a landscape (0.31m tall and 0.62m wide). On the seashore, where a boat rowed, was a building with garden at its back. A pyramid was noticeable, whose presence could be explained by the Hellenistic-Egyptian dominance in the Campanian wall painting. See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, p. 396, fig. 4.

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. 1897. Room B triclinium. South wall.

According to Sogliano, The right or south wall was similar in decoration to the opposite wall.

In the centre red panel, were eel and other fish.

In the yellow panel on the left, (south wall) was a landscape (0.31m tall and 0.62m wide).

On the seashore, where a boat rowed, was a building with garden at its back.

A pyramid was noticeable, whose presence could be explained by the Hellenistic-Egyptian dominance in the Campanian wall painting.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, p. 396, fig. 4.

 

 Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. Room B triclinium. South wall. 
Painting of a landscape of the seashore, with a boat, a pyramid and a building with garden at its back. 
Now in the Louvre. Inventory number P24. 
Photo © RMN-Grand Palais (musée du Louvre) / Hervé Lewandowski.
Paysage Maritime Louvre P24 on rmn.fr
 

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. Room B triclinium. South wall.

Painting of a landscape of the seashore, with a boat, a pyramid and a building with garden at its back.

Now in the Louvre. Inventory number P24.

Photo © RMN-Grand Palais (musée du Louvre) / Hervé Lewandowski.

Paysage Maritime Louvre P24 on rmn.fr

 

To the right, a doorway opened into room C.

Finally in the yellow panel on the left of the entrance doorway was another landscape with seaside villa.

 

Found in this triclinium, between the 10th to the 23rd March, were three human skeletons and three gold rings,

One ring had a small engraved stone representing a locust (?), the second was in the form of a serpent twisting around and around, and the third was a simple ring.

Also found were a bronze cooking pot and a plate, all in fragments and a small terracotta jar and a terracotta lamp.

 

Room C

The room was covered by a vault, may have been a cubiculum, with access from the triclinium and lit by two windows, one onto the portico "D" and the other onto the adjacent torcularium.  The white walls were divided by pillars with vertical garlands of leaves and flowers, 0.26 wide and 1.72 high until they met a carved stucco cornice, which ran around. Each white panel had a type of decorative astragal, which formed a quadrant cornice in the space.

 

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. 1897, room C cubiculum, east wall. According to Sogliano, in the centre panel of the left or east wall was a painting of a swallow and possibly a hoopoe. See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, p. 397, fig. 5.

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. 1897, room C cubiculum, east wall.

According to Sogliano, in the centre panel of the left or east wall was a painting of a swallow and possibly a hoopoe.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, p. 397, fig. 5.

 

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. Room C cubiculum, east wall, centre panel. 
Painting with a swallow and a sparrow or hoopoe (?).
Photo © Trustees of the British Museum. Inventory number 1899.2-15.5.
See Swallow and sparrow wall painting  at britishmuseum.org

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. Room C cubiculum, east wall, centre panel.

Painting with a swallow and a sparrow or hoopoe (?).

Photo © Trustees of the British Museum. Inventory number 1899.2-15.5.

See Swallow and sparrow wall painting  at britishmuseum.org

 

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. 1897, room C cubiculum, south wall. According to Sogliano, in the south or rear wall, was another picture with the representation of a speckled bird pecking at a flowering plant. See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, p. 398, fig. 6.

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. 1897, room C cubiculum, south wall.

According to Sogliano, in the south or rear wall, was another picture with the representation of a speckled bird pecking at a flowering plant.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, p. 398, fig. 6.

 

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. 1897, room C cubiculum, south wall. 
Painting of a jay pecking at a yellow flowered plant.
Photo © Trustees of the British Museum. Inventory number 1899.2-15.4.
See Jay pecking at plant with yellow flowers at britishmuseum.org

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. 1897, room C cubiculum, south wall.

Painting of a jay pecking at a yellow flowered plant.

Photo © Trustees of the British Museum. Inventory number 1899.2-15.4.

See Jay pecking at plant with yellow flowers at britishmuseum.org

 

In the middle of the side panels of the rear wall, and of the entrance doorway wall, were flying swans.

There were sphinxes on the east and west walls.

The zoccolo had a black background, with flowering plants in panels and with yellow ornamental rosettes in the pillasters.

Found on 29th March in this cubiculum was an iron grating.

 

Portico D

The portico "D", from which one entered into the sacrario "A", was supported by rectangular pillars of blocks of nucerine tufa, with moulded capitals and bases.

 

Peristyle E

The peristyle "E" was surrounded by the portico in the east and south sides: the wall of the east portico was opus reticulatum, strengthened in the jambs of the rooms, by masonry of tufa cut in the guise of  bricks; while the wall of the south portico was of opus incertum, and the entrance room door "a" had the jambs of bricks alternated with rows of sarno and tufa stone. The columns of the east portico and the half-column in the north-east corner were of fillets/rows of tufa cut as bricks; the other south-east half- column and the columns of the south portico were brick, all plaster-coated of a brilliant red.

 

The northern wall of the peristyle had brick parts, parts of opus incertum and parts with rows of tufa.

The western wall, which belonged to the cella vinaria "G", is made of mixed bricks, mixed with sarno stone, volcanic waste and various tufa.

 

Some decoration remained in the east portico. It seemed that it was decorated with red panels, divided by yellow pilasters with spiral candelabras, and a black zoccolo with stylized plants.

In the red panel on the north wall one could see the remains of a painting, in which one could distinguish the head of a fish.

 

In the wall of the east portico was embedded, at the height of a man’s chest, a semicircular niche, plastered internally. It is this niche, discovered in 1895 together with its lararium painting, now destroyed, that gave the opportunity for this present excavation. In 1895 Sig. Ippolito Zurlo had brought to light a lararium, similar to all those seen in the house kitchens in Pompeii.

It was the usual niche of the Penates with its usual lararium representation, in which pictures of the Lares, of the Genius Familiaris sacrificing on the altar, and some tibicen, with everyone in the usual costume and attitude, were painted.

Found in the niche was a bronze lamp and a fragmented marble slab (0.40m high, 0.38m wide) found being used as construction material, with an epigraph.

 

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. 1895. Niche in wall of east portico.

Found in the niche was a fragmented marble slab (0.40m high, 0.38m wide), being used as construction material.

It had the following epigraph, which falls within the range of the inscriptiones ministrorum Mercurii, Maiae, postea Augusti of Pompeii:

 

Niger Sitti [P. ser.]

Salvius Arri Q. ser.

P. Sittius P. L Suneros

Albanus Numisi L. ser.

Merc. Maiae sacr.

ex D. D., iussu

 

M. Lucci Libella[e llvir i. d.]

[re]ceptum .

 

According to Sogliano, it refers to the year 26 A.D. (see CIL X, p. 92 and no. 896).

It is notable for the word (re)ceptum, which has not yet appeared in other similar inscriptions, was associated with novatum of the epigraph CIL X, no.884 and 898.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1895, pp. 214-215.

Found under the same east portico on 3rd March 1897, was a marble fragment with the letters SER, which was evidently connected to the same slab and epigraph.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, p. 396-7.

 

A note in the Bolletino d’Arte, Anno IV, Marzo 1910, p. 124, says.

L'avv. Ippolito Zurlo ha donato al museo Pompeiano un frammento epigrafico rinvenuto nel 1895 a Pompei in un suo fondo in contrada Giuliana.

Tale frammento

viene ad arricchire la serie dei Ministri Mercurii Maiae postea Augusti,

[The advocate Ippolito Zurlo gave the Pompei museum an epigraphic fragment recovered in 1895 in Pompeii in one of his fondo in the district Giuliana.

 This fragment will enrich the series of the Ministri Mercurii Maiae postea Augusti,]

See  Notizie in Bollettino D'Arte, Marzo 1910, at beniculturali.it

 

Under the south portico opened the mouth of a cistern "f", with robust masonry puteal, coated with crushed brick-plaster.

Close to the extreme west column, at "g" on plan, were two large earthenware dolia (jars) of clay, and another two were found nearby; one of these still retained the seeds of grapes.

There was also a small stone mill; and on March 24 a horse’s tooth was found.

 

The portico towards the exposed area, was bounded by a channel made of crushed brick concrete, which had two slopes.

One sloped from the half-column in the north-east corner, the other sloped from the south-west corner, both feeding into the cistern "f". 

Between the edge of the channel and the southern boundary wall of the cella vinaria "G" was another channel.

This had the slope from the south-east corner of the wall towards the extreme west of it, where it joined with the first channel.

The join had already been abolished by the ancients themselves, using a small masonry dam.

The water of the second channel was no longer collected in the cistern, but diverted to an outlet in the west wall.

 

In the south-east corner of the area was a terracotta dolium, incised on one of its side was the letter N, an on the other the letter L.

 

Storeroom or cupboard F

Going from triclinium "B" under the eastern portico of the peristyle "E", one found the storeroom/cupboard “F”.

This was to the right for those entering the portico, in the walls were holes for the shelf-supports.

Near to this storeroom/cupboard, another two human skeletons were found.

 

Cella vinaria G

This was separated from the area of the peristyle by means of a plastered parapet, and was similar to that of the villa Pisanella.

Unlike Pisaneela, which was found intact, with distribution channels and with all the large earthenware dolia in their place, our cella instead had only four large earthenware jars in situ.

Its west wall had twenty-one vents, equidistant between them and each of the width of 12cm.

We offer here a view of the cella vinaria, taken from a photograph (fìg. 8).

 

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. 1897, Cella vinaria G, looking north from south portico. The four dolia in the cella vinaria can be seen on the left of centre. See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, p. 398-9, fig. 8.

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. 1897, Cella vinaria G, looking north from south portico.

The four dolia in the cella vinaria can be seen on the left of centre.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, p. 398-9, fig. 8.

 

Torcularium H

The torcularium “H” was situated In the corner, between the east and the south portico, similar in its arrangement to that of the villa Pisanella, described by Pasqui, and to others of the old Stabian villas.  

It consisted of a room, closed on three sides and open on the west side, which was its front side.

The south wall was in fact blind, in that at the rear or east wall, opened a window, into the cubiculum "C".

 

On the north side, the area was closed by a low wall, from which arose two pillars with rows of tufa cut into bricks.

One was almost in the middle of the wall, the other in its extreme west end.

The created two compartments, a window that was projecting under the portico opposite the storeroom/cupboard "F", and an access doorway, made by a break in the wall, 0.62m wide.

The two pillars, together with the east and south wall, supported the roof.

The walls were masonry, coated with plaster up to the height of 1.40m., and with rustic whitewashed plaster at the top.

The floor was of also of crushed brick, with the corners filled up, and the floor of it was raised above that of the portico by about 0.40m.

On the front (west) side it was bordered by stone, so that the liquid did not spill out.

This floor had a slope towards the north-west corner, where in the small entrance area, in a raised area which prevented the escape of the liquid, a hole channelled the liquid into a terracotta dolium “i” buried into the floor.

In front of the forum or calcatorium (treading area), that was on the west side of "H", were placed the two pierced stones "m” and “ m’ ".

These were two stones with hole cut in the middle of the rectangular section, which were placed on the edge of the void, in which were fixed the stipites (posts) of the press.

The well “k” communicated with each of these two voids, which made the two voids practical. 

At the bottom of the east (rear) wall, and between the other two in a normal direction, was placed the hollow "n" for the fixing of the arbour (beam), with square hole with a collar of mattone pesto.  

Nearby, in the south-east corner opened the well "o", also with collar of cocciopesto.

 

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. 1897, Torcularium H. Painting of Bacchus and Silenus on the pillar to the right of the small entrance doorway. According to Sogliano, the torcularium was used for the grapes, as demonstrated by a painting of Bacchus and Silenus.
In front of the painting was a square masonry altar covered with plaster which leaned against the same pillar. The altar measured 0.39m high, 0.32m wide, and 0.30m deep. The painting, which was cut out by De Prisco, is here reproduced here. See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, p. 399-400, fig. 10.

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. 1897, Torcularium H.

Painting of Bacchus and Silenus on the pillar to the right of the small entrance doorway.

According to Sogliano, the torcularium was used for the grapes, as demonstrated by a painting of Bacchus and Silenus.

In front of the painting was a square masonry altar covered with plaster which leaned against the same pillar.

The altar measured 0.39m high, 0.32m wide, and 0.30m deep.

The painting, which was cut out by De Prisco, is here reproduced here.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, p. 399-400, fig. 10.

 

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. Torcularium H.
Painting of Bacchus and Silenus from the pillar to the right of the small entrance doorway. 
Bacchus, 0.76m high, crowned with vine-leaves and naked except for a purple cloak, leans limply with left elbow on the right shoulder of Silenus, nearby. 
The purple cloak, turned around the left elbow, fell down the left side and fell over the knee.
He holds the long thyrsus with the left hand, and his right hand is outstretched, pouring the wine into the mouth of the panther, who was squatting at his feet. 
The god is looking upwards.  
Silenus, 0.62m high crowned with a grapevine and also naked on his top, had his loins wrapped in a purple cloak which was knotted at his belly. 
He was in the act of touching the lyre, which he held leaning on his left arm, and with his gaze turned to the god. 
The background was white, and from the top hung a garland of vine-leaves and grapes.
Photo © Trustees of the British Museum. Inventory number 1899.215.1.
Bacchus, Silenus and panther at britishmuseum.org

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. Torcularium H.

Painting of Bacchus and Silenus from the pillar to the right of the small entrance doorway.

Bacchus, 0.76m high, crowned with vine-leaves and naked except for a purple cloak, leans limply with left elbow on the right shoulder of Silenus, nearby.

The purple cloak, turned around the left elbow, fell down the left side and fell over the knee.

He holds the long thyrsus with the left hand, and his right hand is outstretched, pouring the wine into the mouth of the panther, who was squatting at his feet.

The god is looking upwards. 

Silenus, 0.62m high crowned with a grapevine and also naked on his top, had his loins wrapped in a purple cloak which was knotted at his belly.

He was in the act of touching the lyre, which he held leaning on his left arm, and with his gaze turned to the god.

The background was white, and from the top hung a garland of vine-leaves and grapes.

Photo © Trustees of the British Museum. Inventory number 1899.215.1.

Bacchus, Silenus and panther at britishmuseum.org

 

On the south wall of the described torcularium, traced with charcoal on the plaster, was the following epigraph, not easily read because it had nearly vanished:

 

SOLARIA XXI

TOrCVLA XX

 

According to Epigraphik-Datenbank Clauss/Slaby (See www.manfredclauss.de) this reads


Solaria XXI

torcula XX       [CIL IV 5429]

 

On the 9th March, two human skeletons were found.

 

Rustic room I

In the extreme west of the south portico was the rustic room "I", with a mezzanine floor above.

 

Kitchen K

Under the east portico opened the kitchen "K", in which was noted first of all a masonry cylinder with a circular base, “ l ”.

This had two pieces of pierced volcanic stone. Its purpose is not known. Inside there were unburned pieces of wood and ash.

 

At the foot of the south wall, the floor “p” was found, raised a little above the ground and made of masonry faced in worn out beaten crocks.

By the ash that was found above here, and by the traces of smoke, it was not improbable that it had been a very low hearth, like those of rural houses.

 

Against the north wall was the ascending stairs "q". Here was found a volcanic stone mortar and an iron lamp.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, p. 401, fig. 11.

 

Corridor L

From the kitchen, one passed into the corridor "L", at the bottom of which was the latrine "M".

In the corridor, were also doorways for the three rooms "N", "O", "P".

 

Latrine M

The latrine was at the bottom of corridor "L".

It was lit by just a vent that externally was nothing more than a slit.

The latrine, perfectly preserved, was covered with crushed brick plaster, and above with white plaster.

It had on the front side a closure of timber, which concealed it.

 

Room N

This was a rustic room in which was found an amphora without inscription.

 

Room O

This was a rustic room.

 

Room P

This was located behind the oven, had a floor of cocciopesto and white plastered walls.

Found here were two very small silver rings, and a small bronze bell.

According to Fabbricotti, against the wall of the oven there was a stone bench for sweating [sudationes].

There were no traces of basins.

See Fabbricotti E., 1976. I bagni nelle prime ville romane: Cronache Pompeiane, 2, p. 36, fig. 3.

 

Cubiculum Q

A cubiculum which had its entrance doorway under the east portico.

 

Stairs Corridor R

Found on the north side of the peristyle, other than the doorway "b", was found the area “R” for the stairs up to the upper floor.

Underneath the stairs was a doorway communicating with room "S”.

Found under the stairs of "R", on the 27 April were a number of terracotta items, a fragment of a large dish, a kitchen pot, a lamp, an amphora, and a square support in the centre of which was a recess, which contained the base of an amphora.

 

Room S granary or store

The room "S", with mezzanine above, had doorways to the peristyle E, Room T and Room R.

It was the granary or storeroom, as was apparent from an inscription, drawn with charcoal on the zoccolo of crushed brick plaster, to the left of the doorway communicating with the area "T":

 

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. 1897, Room S granary or store. Inscription, drawn with charcoal on the zoccolo, to the left of the doorway communicating with the area "T". According to Epigraphik-Datenbank Clauss/Slaby (See www.manfredclauss.de) this reads

Hordeum CCDLXX VI
faba MDDLXXXVII       [CIL IV 5430]

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. 1897, Room S granary or store.

Inscription, drawn with charcoal on the zoccolo, to the left of the doorway communicating with the area "T".

According to Epigraphik-Datenbank Clauss/Slaby (See www.manfredclauss.de) this reads


Hordeum CCDLXX VI

faba MDDLXXXVII       [CIL IV 5430]

 

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. 1897, Room S granary or store. Inscription in black letters on the base of the neck of an amphora.

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. 1897, Room S granary or store.

Inscription in black letters on the base of the neck of an amphora.

 

Provenanced from the mezzanine floor, were found:

Marble: remains of coloured marble floor, and a circular base.

Bronze: a small ring part of a stud or boss.

 

Room T

The room was partly excavated.

As it was placed between the granary “S” and the room "V" where a straw deposit was found, room T was probably the threshing floor.

 

Room V

The room was partly excavated and a straw deposit was found.

 

 

Villa rustica del fondo Ippolito Zurlo, Pompeii. 1897. Stamps found on tiles gathered from the excavation.

 

The coins found were a worn-out republican as, an as of Tiberius and two fragments of asses, the one of Claudius and the other of Nero.  

 

Found among the earth gathered on 10 April, was the bottom of a jar with the mark in the shape of the human foot (CIL X 8055, 19):

 

FORTV

 

Also gathered eventually were many pieces of terracotta roof gutters (grondaie).