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Sanctuario C, Il tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. Santuario di Dioniso-Liber.

Sanctuary C, Temple of Dionysus at Sant’Abbondio, outside Pompeii.  Sanctuary of Dionysus-Liber.

Excavated 1947, 1973 and 2008.

 

According to Kockel, the shrine was found south of the city on a hill overlooking the old course of the coast near the chapel of S. Abbondio.

A bomb in 1943 punched a crater, exposing the lapilli. Here, the owner soon encountered ancient remains.

At the end of 1947 these were excavated by the Soprintendenza and are still visible today.

A detailed publication was in preparation by O. Elia. but after her death only her unfinished manuscript was sent to press, edited by G. Pugliese Caratelli and enriched by a longer commentary on the cult.

See Kockel V., Funde und Forschungen in den Vesuvstadten 1, Archéologischer Anzeiger, 1985, pp. 568ff.

 

According to Garcia y Garcia the only consolation of the 1943 bombing was that it led to the finding of the temple and its eventual excavation in 1947.

See Garcia y Garcia, L., 2006. Danni di guerra a Pompei. Rome: L’Erma di Bretschneider, p. 26.

 

Wilhelmina Jashemski carried out an excavation in 1973 and found a total of sixteen vine root and post cavities adjacent to the two triclinia and the schola.

 

A further archaeological campaign was carried out in the temple of S. Abbondio at Pompeii in 2008.

According to Van Andringa, the aim was to try to describe the phases and the history of the sanctuary at Pompeii dedicated to Loufir-Dionysos.

One question was the dating of the Doric temple located on a small hill, today eroded away, overlooking the Sarno valley.

The data collected seem to show that the hill had been occupied during the Bronze Age and in the Archaic period, but there is at the moment no evidence of an earlier cult place.

The construction of the temple took place in the middle of the third century BC.

Another important element is the dating of the ramp and the inscribed altar, which would be later than the temple.

There is, however, no trace of a thiasos (the ecstatic retinue of Dionysus) before the Imperial period.

The study is completed by an analysis of the archaeological material discovered in the ancient and new excavations: inscriptions, reliefs of the pediment, pottery, animal bones and plant remains.

See W. Van Andringa et al, Archéologie et religion : le sanctuaire dionysiaque de S. Abbondio à Pompéi. MEFRA 125-1, 2013. http://mefra.revues.org/1165

 

Bibliography

Archéologie et religion : le sanctuaire dionysiaque de S. Abbondio à Pompéi. MEFRA 125-1, 2013 Bibliographie: http://mefra.revues.org/1247

Van Andringa W. et al, Archéologie et religion : le sanctuaire dionysiaque de S. Abbondio à Pompéi. MEFRA 125-1, 2013. http://mefra.revues.org/1165

Amery C and Curran B, 2002. The Lost World of Pompeii. Getty Publications, p. 68.

Barnabei L., I culti di Pompei, in Contributi di Archeologia Vesuviana, 3, Rome, 2007 (Studi della Soprintendenza archeologica di Pompei, 21), p. 11-83.

Bielfeldt R., Der Liber-Tempel in Pompeji in Sant’Abbondio. Oskisches Vorstdtheiligtum und kaiserzeitliches Kultlokal, dans MDAI-Römische Abteilung, 113, 2007, p. 317-371.

Cooley, A. and M.G.L., 2004. Pompeii : A Sourcebook. London : Routledge, p. 11-2, fig. 1.3, A15-17.

De Caro S., in Dobbins, J. J. and Foss, P. W., 2008. The World of Pompeii. Oxford: Routledge, p. 80.

Elia O., Pugliese Carratelli G., Il santuario dionisiaco di S. Abbondio a Pompei, dans Orfismo in Magna Grecia. Atti del XIV convegno di studi sulla Magna Grecia (1974), Naples, 1975, p. 139-154.

Elia O., Pugliese Carratelli G., Il santuario dionisiaco di Pompei, dans PP, 34, 1979, p. 442-481

Garcia y Garcia, L., 2006. Danni di guerra a Pompei. Rome: L’Erma di Bretschneider, p. 26.

Guzzo P., in Dobbins, J. J. and Foss, P. W., 2008. The World of Pompeii. Oxford: Routledge, p. 185.

Jashemski W. F., 2014. Discovering the Gardens of Pompeii: The Memoirs of a Garden Archaeologist 1955 – 2004, p. 209.

Kockel V., Funde und Forschungen in den Vesuvstadten 1, Archéologischer Anzeiger, 1985, pp. 568ff.

Rosenberg A. 2013. The Cult of Bacchus in ancient Pompeii http://prezi.com/p9tgbxdbfv16/the-cult-of-bacchus/

Sironen T, 2013. Documentazione epigrafica osca del santuario suburbano delle divinità dionisiache a S. Abbondio, MEFRA, 125-1. See http://mefra.revues.org/1250

Small A.M., in Dobbins, J. J. and Foss, P. W., 2008. The World of Pompeii. Oxford: Routledge, p. 185.

Wolf M., “Der Tempel von S. Abbondio in Pompeji,” in Koldewey Gesellschaft, Bericht 41. Tagung f. Ausgrabungswissenschaft und Bauforschung, May–June 2000 (2002), p. 61.

 

 

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. Map with location of temple = A.

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. Map with location of temple = A.

 

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. Temples Plan after Guzzo 2005, p. 12-13
The temple is about one mile south-east of the Pompeii city walls. No major roads link to it.
According to Small, The small temple of Dionysus was situated on the top of a low hill at S. Abbondio near what was then the mouth of the Sarno rive.
It goes back to the pre-Roman period. 
See Small A.M., in Dobbins, J. J. and Foss, P. W., 2008. The World of Pompeii. Oxford: Routledge, p. 185.
According to Rosenberg it could be a rustic temple.
See Rosenberg A. 2013. The Cult of Bacchus in ancient Pompeii http://prezi.com/p9tgbxdbfv16/the-cult-of-bacchus/ 
According to Amery and Curran it was a secret temple.
See Amery C and Curran B, 2002. The Lost World of Pompeii. Getty Publications, p. 68.
According to Guzzo, between the third and second centuries BC, the Samnite magistrates administrated the roads that ran south from Pompeii. 
There is epigraphic evidence for a “Stabian bridge,” which facilitated transit perhaps not only into town but also between the suburban sanctuaries of fondo Iozzino and S. Abbondio (dedicated to Bacchus), on opposite banks of the river Sarno. 
The location of the saltpans, documented by Oscan and Latin inscriptions, is uncertain.
See Guzzo P., in Dobbins, J. J. and Foss, P. W., 2008. The World of Pompeii. Oxford: Routledge, p. 185.

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. Temples Plan after Guzzo 2005, p. 12-13

The temple is about one mile south-east of the Pompeii city walls.

No major roads link to it.

According to Small, The small temple of Dionysus was situated on the top of a low hill at S. Abbondio near what was then the mouth of the Sarno rive.

It goes back to the pre-Roman period.

See Small A.M., in Dobbins, J. J. and Foss, P. W., 2008. The World of Pompeii. Oxford: Routledge, p. 185.

According to Rosenberg it could be a rustic temple.

See Rosenberg A. 2013. The Cult of Bacchus in ancient Pompeii http://prezi.com/p9tgbxdbfv16/the-cult-of-bacchus/

According to Amery and Curran it was a secret temple.

See Amery C and Curran B, 2002. The Lost World of Pompeii. Getty Publications, p. 68.

According to Guzzo, between the third and second centuries BC, the Samnite magistrates administrated the roads that ran south from Pompeii.

There is epigraphic evidence for a “Stabian bridge,” which facilitated transit perhaps not only into town but also between the suburban sanctuaries of fondo Iozzino and S. Abbondio (dedicated to Bacchus), on opposite banks of the river Sarno.

The location of the saltpans, documented by Oscan and Latin inscriptions, is uncertain.

See Guzzo P., in Dobbins, J. J. and Foss, P. W., 2008. The World of Pompeii. Oxford: Routledge, p. 185.

 

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. Temple Plan. See Cooley, A. and M.G.L., 2004. Pompeii : A Sourcebook. London : Routledge, p. 12, fig. 1.3, A15.

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. Temple Plan.

See Cooley, A. and M.G.L., 2004. Pompeii: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, p. 12, fig. 1.3, A15.

 

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. Drawing of sanctuary. It was a Samnite temple, of Doric style, constructed around the late third or early second centuries B.C. There were two triclinia, with tables, in front of the temple with an altar in between them. According to Lorenza Barnabei, an Oscan an inscription on two sides of the altar honoured Maras Atinius an aedile of Samnite Pompeii. A mosaic Oscan inscription on the floor of the ramp translates to OPPIUS EPIDIUS OPPI FILIUS TREBIUS MEZIUS TREBII FILIUS AEDILES. Cooley translates this as Ovius Epidius, son of Ovius, and Trebius Mettius, son of Trebius, aediles. See Cooley, A. and M.G.L., 2004. Pompeii : A Sourcebook. London : Routledge, p. 12, A17. The construction of the ramp was probably in the final phase of the edifice. The ramp led up to the area under the portico (the pronaos) which then led to the temple cella. A schola was behind one of the triclinia. See Barnabei L. in Contributi di Archeologia Vesuviana, 3, Rome, 2007 (Studi della Soprintendenza archeologica di Pompei, 21), p. 39.

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. Drawing of sanctuary.

It was a Samnite temple, of Doric style, constructed around the late third or early second centuries B.C.

There were two triclinia, with tables, in front of the temple with an altar in between them.

According to Lorenza Barnabei, an Oscan an inscription on two sides of the altar honoured Maras Atinius an aedile of Samnite Pompeii.

A mosaic Oscan inscription on the floor of the ramp translates to OPPIUS EPIDIUS OPPI FILIUS TREBIUS MEZIUS TREBII FILIUS AEDILES.

Cooley translates this as Ovius Epidius, son of Ovius, and Trebius Mettius, son of Trebius, aediles.

See Cooley, A. and M.G.L., 2004. Pompeii: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, p. 12, A17.

The construction of the ramp was probably in the final phase of the edifice.

The ramp led up to the area under the portico (the pronaos) which then led to the temple cella.

A schola was behind one of the triclinia.

See Barnabei L. in Contributi di Archeologia Vesuviana, 3, Rome, 2007 (Studi della Soprintendenza archeologica di Pompei, 21), p. 39.

 

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. Old undated photograph of reconstruction model of temple. The walls and columns were covered in heavy coats of stucco. The pronaos was enclosed by screen with attached benches. It was damaged in the earthquake of 62AD, and repaired by the time of the AD79 eruption. significant because Pompeii continued to renovate temple after senate decree.

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. Old undated photograph of reconstruction model of temple.

The walls and columns were covered in heavy coats of stucco.
The pronaos was enclosed by screen with attached benches.
It was damaged in the earthquake of 62AD, and repaired by the time of the AD79 eruption.
According to Cooley, this is an indication of how deeply culture and society in Pompeii were influenced by Hellenistic traditions during the second century BC

Pompeii had continued to renovate the temple after the Rome Senate decree of 186BC, which banned the worship of Dionysus.

There is no evidence that the cult at Pompeii was interrupted.

The temple was still in use in 79AD.

See Cooley, A. and M.G.L., 2004. Pompeii: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, p. 11.

 

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. December 2011. Looking east across temple
Photo courtesy of Google Earth.

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. December 2011. Looking east across temple

Photo courtesy of Google Earth.

 

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. Looking east.
Current state of temple with pediment in place.

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. Looking east.

Current state of temple with pediment in place.

 

 

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. Tufa pediment from front of temple.
The design is in high relief and shows two divinities reclining at a banquet.
Bacchus or Dionysus on the left holds a cup (Kantharos) in his right hand and grapes in his left.
He is shown together with other figures commonly associated with him, (such as a panther) and a female figure who has been variously interpreted as Ariadne or Aphrodite
Ariadne or Aphrodite on the right is lifting her veil perhaps in a wedding gesture.
According to De Caro, the cult must date back to the archaic period, but the best-documented phase is the Hellenistic, with a small Doric tetrastyle prostyle temple.
It is adorned with a beautiful little tufa pediment in which the god celebrates his sacred marriage with Ariadne. 
The cult, prohibited in exactly this period in Rome by the senatus consultus de Bacchanalibus, shows that it was alive and beloved in this Campanian city, certainly in connection with the flourishing viticulture of the area, not by chance attested already from this period by a local production of Greek-Italic amphorae.
See De Caro in Dobbins, J. J. and Foss, P. W., 2008. The World of Pompeii. Oxford: Routledge, p. 80.

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. Tufa pediment from front of temple.

The design is in high relief and shows two divinities reclining at a banquet.

Bacchus or Dionysus on the left holds a cup (Kantharos) in his right hand and grapes in his left.

He is shown together with other figures commonly associated with him, (such as a panther) and a female figure who has been variously interpreted as Ariadne or Aphrodite

Ariadne or Aphrodite on the right is lifting her veil perhaps in a wedding gesture.

According to De Caro, the cult must date back to the archaic period, but the best-documented phase is the Hellenistic, with a small Doric tetrastyle prostyle temple.

It is adorned with a beautiful little tufa pediment in which the god celebrates his sacred marriage with Ariadne.

The cult, prohibited in exactly this period in Rome by the senatus consultus de Bacchanalibus, shows that it was alive and beloved in this Campanian city, certainly in connection with the flourishing viticulture of the area, not by chance attested already from this period by a local production of Greek-Italic amphorae.

See De Caro in Dobbins, J. J. and Foss, P. W., 2008. The World of Pompeii. Oxford: Routledge, p. 80.

 

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. December 2005. Pediment in Pompeii Forum Granary Store VII.7.29.

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. December 2005.

Pediment in Pompeii Forum Granary Store VII.7.29.

 

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. December 2005. Pediment from front of temple, stored in Pompeii Forum Granary Store VII.7.29. Detail of Dionysus with arm outstretched, holding a cup in his right hand and grapes in his left hand.

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. December 2005.

Pediment from front of temple, stored in Pompeii Forum Granary Store VII.7.29.

Detail of Dionysus with arm outstretched, holding a cup in his right hand and grapes in his left hand.

 

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. Looking east up ramp into temple.

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. Looking east up ramp into temple.

 

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. 1973. Looking east. 
Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski. 
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J73f0349
According to Jashemski, [in 1973] “it was cleaned for us, so we began work there. The temple, accidentally discovered on private property as a result of bombing in 1943 during World War II, was excavated in 1947  48. In front of the temple are two very large masonry triclinia, each with a large circular table, the scene of the sacral banquets of the Dionysiac mysteries. At the southwest corner was a large schola (elaborate stone bench). We were able to find a total of sixteen cavities adjacent to the two triclinia and the schola. Some were the cavities of posts that supported the pergola, others were of the roots of vines that shaded the pergola built over each triclinium. The original condition of the soil at the sides and the rear of the temple was completely ruined, for the site had been used as a dump. But Sicignano, who had helped in the original excavation of the temple, distinctly recalled that pronounced furrows were visible when the lapilli were removed, and that lapilli filled cavities could be seen. These, because of their appearance and the distances between them, he took to be grapevines. The temple of Dionysius, god of wine, quite appropriately was located in a vineyard.”
See Jashemski W. F., 2014. Discovering the Gardens of Pompeii: The Memoirs of a Garden Archaeologist 1955 – 2004, p. 209.

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. 1973. Looking east.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J73f0349

According to Jashemski, [in 1973] “it was cleaned for us, so we began work there. The temple, accidentally discovered on private property as a result of bombing in 1943 during World War II, was excavated in 1947‑ 48. In front of the temple are two very large masonry triclinia, each with a large circular table, the scene of the sacral banquets of the Dionysiac mysteries. At the southwest corner was a large schola (elaborate stone bench). We were able to find a total of sixteen cavities adjacent to the two triclinia and the schola. Some were the cavities of posts that supported the pergola, others were of the roots of vines that shaded the pergola built over each triclinium. The original condition of the soil at the sides and the rear of the temple was completely ruined, for the site had been used as a dump. But Sicignano, who had helped in the original excavation of the temple, distinctly recalled that pronounced furrows were visible when the lapilli were removed, and that lapilli‑filled cavities could be seen. These, because of their appearance and the distances between them, he took to be grapevines. The temple of Dionysius, god of wine, quite appropriately was located in a vineyard.”

See Jashemski W. F., 2014. Discovering the Gardens of Pompeii: The Memoirs of a Garden Archaeologist 1955 – 2004, p. 209.

 

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. 1973. Looking east. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski. 
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J73f0352

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. 1973. Looking east.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J73f0352

 

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. 1973. Looking east. 
Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski. 
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J73f0588

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. 1973. Looking east.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J73f0588

 

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. Looking south–east across triclinia, ramp and temple.

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei.

Looking south–east across triclinia, ramp and temple.

 

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. Looking north-east across triclinia, schola and temple walls.

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei.

Looking north-east across triclinia, schola and temple walls.

 

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. 1973. Looking north. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski. 
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J73f0348

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. 1973. Looking north.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J73f0348

 

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. 1973. Looking west. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski. 
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J73f0350

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. 1973. Looking west. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J73f0350

 

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. 1973. Looking north-west. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski. 
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J73f0351

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. 1973. Looking north-west. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J73f0351

 

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. March 2009. Temple altar in storage by the Pompeii Antiquarium.

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. March 2009.

Temple altar in storage by the Pompeii Antiquarium.

 

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. March 2009. Temple altar with Oscan inscription in Pompeii Antiquarium. According to Lorenza Barnabei, an Oscan an inscription on two sides of the altar honoured Maras Atinius an aedile of Samnite Pompeii. See Barnabei L. in Contributi di Archeologia Vesuviana, 3, Rome, 2007 (Studi della Soprintendenza archeologica di Pompei, 21), p. 39.

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. March 2009.

Temple altar with Oscan inscription in Pompeii Antiquarium.

According to Lorenza Barnabei, an Oscan an inscription on two sides of the altar honoured Maras Atinius, an aedile of Samnite Pompeii.

See Barnabei L. in Contributi di Archeologia Vesuviana, 3, Rome, 2007 (Studi della Soprintendenza archeologica di Pompei, 21), p. 39.

 

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. March 2009. Temple altar in Pompeii Antiquarium.
According to Lorenza Barnabei, the Oscan inscription equates to MARAS ATINIUS MARAE F AIDILIS SUA PECUNIA.
The inscription on the rear was engraved with less accuracy than that on the front, which still showed traces of the red paint highlighting its letters.
Cooley translates this as 
Maras Atinius, son of Maras, aedile, at his own expense.

The same individual is named as quaestor (kvaísstur) on the inscribed sundial in the Stabian Baths. 
The inscriptions found in this temple show that Pompeii’s magistrates were directly
involved in establishing the cult, perhaps in the second half of the third century BC. 
See Cooley, A. and M.G.L., 2004. Pompeii : A Sourcebook. London : Routledge, p. 12, A16.
See Barnabei L. in Contributi di Archeologia Vesuviana, 3, Rome, 2007 (Studi della Soprintendenza archeologica di Pompei, 21), p. 39.

Tempio dionisiaco in località Sant’Abbondio di Pompei. March 2009. Temple altar in Pompeii Antiquarium.

According to Lorenza Barnabei, the Oscan inscription equates to

MARAS ATINIUS MARAE F AIDILIS SUA PECUNIA.

The inscription on the rear was engraved with less accuracy than that on the front, which still showed traces of the red paint highlighting its letters.

 

Cooley translates this as

Maras Atinius, son of Maras, aedile, at his own expense.

 

The same individual is named as quaestor (kvaísstur) on the inscribed sundial in the Stabian Baths.

The inscriptions found in this temple show that Pompeii’s magistrates were directly involved in establishing the cult, perhaps in the second half of the third century BC.

See Cooley, A. and M.G.L., 2004. Pompeii : A Sourcebook. London : Routledge, p. 12, A16.

See Barnabei L. in Contributi di Archeologia Vesuviana, 3, Rome, 2007 (Studi della Soprintendenza archeologica di Pompei, 21), p. 39.