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IX.4.18 Pompeii. Terme Centrali or Central Baths. Main Entrance from Via di Nola.

Part 1                                                                        Part 2

 

Part 3      Terme Centrali or Central Baths Plan

 

These baths were begun after the 62AD earthquake, and were still under construction at the time of the eruption in 79AD.

The baths occupied this entire insula whose original houses had been demolished to make way for the new baths.

IX.4.18 on the north side was the main entrance “a” from the Via di Nola.

IX.4.5 on the west side was an entrance into the palaestra “d” from Via Stabiana.

IX.4.10 on the south side was a small entrance into the palaestra “d” past a multi seat latrine “e” from an unnamed vicolo

There were two other smaller entrances from Vicolo di Tesmo, probably service doorways, on the eastern side of the insula at IX.4.15 and 16.

IX.4.15 on the east side led to service area “t” from Vicolo di Tesmo.

This contained the furnace area and a small garden divided from it by a wall.

IX.4.16 on the east side led to an open area “u” from Vicolo di Tesmo.

This had a small peristyle and a corridor that led to apodyterium “i”.

During the excavation, the archaeologists found the remains of the demolished residential houses in the area of the palaestra, which had not been entirely cleared by the people building the new baths.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, June 1877, p. 445, description and finds.

See BdI, 1877, p. 214-223.

See BdI, 1878, p. 251-4.

See La Rocca, De Vos and De Vos, 1976. Guida Archeologica di Pompei. Mondadori Editore, p. 307-9.

See De Haan, Wallat, Le Terme Centrali di Pompei: Ricerche e scavi 2003-2006, in Nuove ricerche archeologiche nell'area vesuviana (scavi 2003-2006): SAP 25: pp. 15-24.

 

The photographs for the inside of the baths can be found on these pages for the main entrance at IX.4.18.

 

IX.4.18 Pompeii. September 2011. Terme Centrali or Central Baths. Front of north wall and main entrance “a” (left) on Via di Nola. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

IX.4.18 Pompeii. September 2011. Terme Centrali or Central Baths.

Front of north wall and main entrance “a” (left) on Via di Nola.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

IX.4.18 Pompeii. December 2005. Terme Centrali or Central Baths. Main entrance “a” from Via di Nola. According to La Rocca, De Vos and De Vos this was the main entrance to the baths. Viola suggests this in his excavation report because on the left side were two small rooms. It seemed to him these could have been, a ticket office “b”: and a room “c” where valuables could be left with a capsarius (clothes minder). See Viola L, 1879. Gli Scavi di Pompei dal 1873 al 1878, p. 30-1. See La Rocca, De Vos and De Vos, 1976. Guida Archeologica di Pompei. Mondadori Editore, p. 307-9.

IX.4.18 Pompeii. December 2005. Terme Centrali or Central Baths. Main entrance “a” from Via di Nola.

According to La Rocca, De Vos and De Vos this was the main entrance to the baths.

Viola suggests this in his excavation report because on the left side were two small rooms.

It seemed to him these could have been, a ticket office “b”: and a room “c” where valuables could be left with a capsarius (clothes minder).

See Viola L, 1879. Gli Scavi di Pompei dal 1873 al 1878, p. 30-1.

See La Rocca, De Vos and De Vos, 1976. Guida Archeologica di Pompei. Mondadori Editore, p. 307-9.

 

IX.4.18 Pompeii. September 2015. Looking south from entrance “a” into baths palaestra “d”.

IX.4.18 Pompeii. September 2015. Looking south from entrance “a” into baths palaestra “d”.

 

IX.4.18 Pompeii. December 2005. Looking south from entrance “a” into baths palaestra “d”.

IX.4.18 Pompeii. December 2005. Looking south from entrance “a” into baths palaestra “d”.

 

IX.4.18 Pompeii. September 2004. Looking south across the east side of the palaestra "d", from the entrance.  A depression in the ground on the east side would have been where a large outdoor pool "h" was to be built.

IX.4.18 Pompeii. September 2004. Looking south across the east side of the palaestra “d”, from the entrance.

A depression in the ground on the east side would have been where a large outdoor pool “h” was to be built.

 

IX.4.18 Pompeii. September 2011. Entrance “a” with rooms “b” and “c”. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.
According to Viola these two small rooms were probably intended to be a ticket office “b” and a deposit room “c” in which valuables could be left with a capsarius (clothes minder).
The entrance led directly into the palaestra “d”.
See Viola L, 1879. Gli Scavi di Pompei dal 1873 al 1878, p. 30-1.

IX.4.18 Pompeii. September 2011. Entrance “a” with rooms “b” and “c”. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

According to Viola these two small rooms were probably intended to be a ticket office “b” and a deposit room “c” in which valuables could be left with a capsarius (clothes minder).

The entrance led directly into the palaestra “d”.

See Viola L, 1879. Gli Scavi di Pompei dal 1873 al 1878, p. 30-1.

 

IX.4.18 Pompeii. September 2004. Looking south-east from the entrance “a”. 
On the left were two small rooms, a ticket office “b” and a room “c” where valuables could be left with a capsarius (clothes minder).
The entrance would have led directly into the palaestra “d”.
In the north-east corner of the palaestra was a doorway leading into an unfinished room “i”, probably the apodyterium (changing room).
However Mau believed that the room, together with the other smaller rooms “k”, “l”, “m”, “n” and “o” around it, would have been used as shops to sell things for the convenience of the bathers and users of the baths.
The frigidarium “p” (cold) was to the south of the unfinished room, whether it was used as a changing room or shops. 
It was a large rectangular room with a basin for cold baths along the east side, opposite the three windows. This cold bath was nearly five feet deep. 
According to La Rocca, De Vos and De Vos “p” was the apodyterium and there was no frigidarium.
The frigidarium or apodyterium led into the tepidarium “q” (warm), which also had three large windows all opening out onto the palaestra “d”.
The tepidarium led into the caldarium “s” (hot), which was placed so that its three large windows would have received the greatest amount of warm afternoon and evening sun.
There were five smaller windows built into the south wall of the caldarium. These looked out onto a small garden area “t”.
On the east side of the tepidarium and caldarium was the small round laconicum or sweating room “r”, made to feel larger by four semicircular niches, and lit by three small round windows high up above the cornice of the vaulted ceiling. 
The vaulted ceiling was partly conserved, whereas the ceilings of the warm and hot rooms were totally collapsed.
None of these rooms were finished, although the hollow floors and walls had been built into the warm, hot and sweating rooms.
No marble had been laid into the bath pools.
The two furnaces had not yet been built. These would have been built in the area “t” by the entrance at IX.4.15.
See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, June 1877, (p.445, description and finds).
See BdI 1877, (p.214-223)
See BdI, 1878, (p251- 254) 
See La Rocca, De Vos and De Vos, 1976. Guida Archeologica di Pompei. Mondadori Editore, p. 307-9.
According to Jashemski, the five small windows of the caldarium looked out onto a small garden “t”.
The garden would have had a wall enclosing it, to hide from view the men walking back and forth tending the furnaces.
The wall was only partially completed.
See Jashemski, W. F., 1993. The Gardens of Pompeii, Volume II: Appendices. New York: Caratzas, p. 235).

IX.4.18 Pompeii. September 2004. Looking south-east from the entrance “a”.

In the north-east corner of the palaestra was a doorway leading into an unfinished room “i”, probably the apodyterium (changing room).

However, Mau believed that the room, together with the other smaller rooms “k”, “l”, “m”, “n” and “o” around it, would have been used as shops to sell things for the convenience of the bathers and users of the baths.

The frigidarium “p” (cold) was to the south of the unfinished room, whether it was used as a changing room or shops.

It was a large rectangular room with a basin for cold baths along the east side, opposite the three windows. This cold bath was nearly five feet deep.

According to La Rocca, De Vos and De Vos “p” was the apodyterium and there was no frigidarium.

The frigidarium or apodyterium led into the tepidarium “q” (warm), which also had three large windows all opening out onto the palaestra “d”.

The tepidarium led into the caldarium “s” (hot), which was placed so that its three large windows would have received the greatest amount of warm afternoon and evening sun.

There were five smaller windows built into the south wall of the caldarium. These looked out onto a small garden area “t”.

On the east side of the tepidarium and caldarium was the small round laconicum or sweating room “r”, made to feel larger by four semi-circular niches, and lit by three small round windows high up above the cornice of the vaulted ceiling.

The vaulted ceiling was partly conserved, whereas the ceilings of the warm and hot rooms were totally collapsed.

None of these rooms were finished, although the hollow floors and walls had been built into the warm, hot and sweating rooms.

No marble had been laid into the bath pools.

The two furnaces had not yet been built. These would have been built in the area “t” by the entrance at IX.4.15.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, June 1877, (p.445, description and finds).

See BdI 1877, (p.214-223)

See BdI, 1878, (p251- 254)

See La Rocca, De Vos and De Vos, 1976. Guida Archeologica di Pompei. Mondadori Editore, p. 307-9.

According to Jashemski, the five small windows of the caldarium looked out onto a small garden “t”.

The garden would have had a wall enclosing it, to hide from view the men walking back and forth tending the furnaces.

The wall was only partially completed.

See Jashemski, W. F., 1993. The Gardens of Pompeii, Volume II: Appendices. New York: Caratzas, p. 235).

 

IX.4.18 Pompeii. December 2009. Looking south-east to east side and baths.

IX.4.18 Pompeii. December 2009. Looking south-east to east side and baths.

 

IX.4.18 Pompeii. June 2008. North end of east side of baths.

IX.4.18 Pompeii. June 2008. North end of east side of baths.

 

P631_IX_4_18_ZThermen edit.jpg
IX.4.18 Pompeii. East side of baths, looking south-east. 
Photographed 1970-79 by Günther Einhorn, picture courtesy of his son Ralf Einhorn.
The doorway on the left would have led to the apodyterium (changing room) “i”.
In the centre would have been the three windows of the frigidarium (cold) “p”.
On the right are the three large windows of the tepidarium (warm) “q”.
The caldarium (hot room) “s” would be the three square windows, on the right.

IX.4.18 Pompeii. East side of baths, looking south-east.

Photographed 1970-79 by Günther Einhorn, picture courtesy of his son Ralf Einhorn.

The doorway on the left would have led to the apodyterium (changing room) “i”.

In the centre would have been the three windows of the frigidarium (cold) “p”.

On the right are the three large windows of the tepidarium (warm) “q”.

The caldarium (hot room) “s” would be the three square windows, on the right.

 

IX.4.18 Pompeii. 1964. East side of baths, looking south-east. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J64f1225

IX.4.18 Pompeii. 1964. East side of baths, looking south-east. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J64f1225

 

IX.4 Pompeii. 1961. Looking south-east across east side of Baths. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J61f0363

IX.4 Pompeii. 1961. Looking south-east across east side of Baths.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J61f0363

 

IX.4.18 Pompeii. September 2011. Looking east from entrance doorway along north side to vestibule i.  Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

IX.4.18 Pompeii. September 2011. Looking east from entrance doorway along north side to vestibule i.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

IX.4.18 Pompeii. September 2011. Staircase on north side of baths, next to rooms “b” and “c”.  (taken from IX.4.5).  Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

IX.4.18 Pompeii. September 2011.

Staircase on north side of baths, next to rooms “b” and “c”. (taken from IX.4.5)

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

IX.4.18 Pompeii. September 2011. Two doorways into vestibule i. 
At the rear on the left can be seen the small rooms “k” and “l”. 
Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

IX.4.18 Pompeii. September 2011. Two doorways into vestibule i.

At the rear on the left can be seen the small rooms “k” and “l”.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

IX.4.18 Pompeii. September 2011. Two doorways into vestibule i. At the rear on the left can be seen the small rooms “n” and “o”. In the inside right wall are the two entrances into the apodyterium or frigidarium "p". Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

IX.4.18 Pompeii. September 2011. Two doorways into vestibule i.

At the rear on the left can be seen the small rooms “n” and “o”.

In the inside right wall are the two entrances into the apodyterium or frigidarium “p”.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

IX.4.18 Pompeii. Looking south-east. The doorway to the vestibule or apodyterium (changing room) “i”. Inside on the right are the two doors to the frigidarium or apodyterium “p”. Photographed 1970-79 by Günther Einhorn, picture courtesy of his son Ralf Einhorn.

IX.4.18 Pompeii. Looking south-east. The doorway to the vestibule or apodyterium (changing room) “i”.

Inside on the right are the two doors to the frigidarium or apodyterium “p”.

Photographed 1970-79 by Günther Einhorn, picture courtesy of his son Ralf Einhorn.

 

IX.4.18 Pompeii. c.1890s. Vestibule “I” and Tepidarium “q”. Looking east from palaestra “d”.

IX.4.18 Pompeii. c.1890s. Vestibule “I” and Tepidarium “q”. Looking east from palaestra “d”.

 

Part 2

 

Part 3      Terme Centrali or Central Baths Plan