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Pompeii Castellum Aquae, water tower near to VI.15.18 and VI.16.22/VI.16.23.

Excavated 1902.

Part 1                                                                         Part 2

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1903 plan of water tower. Note the north and south walls are not parallel.
A:  Base level
B:  Internal basin 0.87m below walls a and b
a:  Walls 0.40m higher than A next to the water inlet channel
b:  Walls 0.40m higher than A
c:  Containing walls for the three channels h, now missing
d:  Cascade for the water which could be stopped by a sluice which was at the mouth of the channel, where traces of iron staples remain in the wall.
e:  f:  Two layers of lead, of which only traces embedded in the floor remain, because the edifice was stripped of all the metal it contained in antiquity, so no gate, no sheets or ducts are now in place. 
           From the side remains it appears that the first of the plates was 0.34m high, the second was 0.25m on the floor of the basin. 
G:  Two walls which directed the flow into three outlet channels
h:  Outlet channels feeding through the south wall in lead pipes
m:  m’:   Water dividing walls
See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1903 p. 27-31, fig. 4.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1903 plan of water tower. Note the north and south walls are not parallel.

 

A:  Base level

B:  Internal basin 0.87m below walls a and b

a:  Walls 0.40m higher than A next to the water inlet channel

b:  Walls 0.40m higher than A

c:  Containing walls for the three channels h, now missing

d:  Cascade for the water which could be stopped by a sluice which was at the mouth of the channel, where traces of iron staples remain in the wall.

e:  f:  Two layers of lead, of which only traces embedded in the floor remain, because the edifice was stripped of all the metal it contained in antiquity, so no gate, no sheets or ducts are now in place.

           From the side remains it appears that the first of the plates was 0.34m high, the second was 0.25m on the floor of the basin.

G:  Two walls which directed the flow into three outlet channels

h:  Outlet channels feeding through the south wall in lead pipes

m:  m’:   Water dividing walls

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1903 p. 27-31, fig. 4.

 

Castellum Acquae Pompeii. July 2003. Looking south-west across Porta del Vesuvio.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2003. Looking south-west across Porta del Vesuvio.

 

Castellum Acquae Pompeii. May 2006. Looking north from Via del Vesuvio. Initially most people used wells or collected rainwater in the impluvium of their houses and water supply was not always reliable. The construction of an aqueduct by Augustus solved this problem, bringing water from Serino in Avellino province. A branch of the Serino aqueduct brought water to Pompeii. A water tower or castellum acquae was built at the highest point in the town next to the Vesuvian Gate. It was at about 43 metres above sea level in order to make the distribution easier. It fed a series of water columns with tanks on top which helped maintain pressure and regulate flow.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2006. Looking north from Via del Vesuvio.

Initially most people used wells or collected rainwater in the impluvium of their houses and water supply was not always reliable.  

The construction of an aqueduct by Augustus solved this problem, bringing water from Serino in Avellino province.

A branch of the Serino aqueduct brought water to Pompeii.

A water tower or castellum Aquae was built at the highest point in the town next to the Vesuvian Gate.

It was at about 43 metres above sea level in order to make the distribution easier.

It fed a series of water columns with tanks on top which helped maintain pressure and regulate flow.

 

Castellum Acquae Pompeii. December 2005. South side of water tower showing arched decoration.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. December 2005. South side of water tower showing arched decoration.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1903 view of south side. The south side is the most ornate with four pillars bounding three arches. On each of the pillars is the outline of a capital carved protruding from the bricks. The three water exit channels are in the centre at the bottom.
The two windows are narrow slits on the outside but widen out more on the inside. See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1903, p. 26, fig. 1.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1903 view of south side.

The south side is the most ornate with four pillars bounding three arches.

On each of the pillars is the outline of a capital carved protruding from the bricks.

The three water exit channels are in the centre at the bottom.

The two windows are narrow slits on the outside but widen out more on the inside.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1903, p. 26, fig. 1.

 

Castellum Acquae Pompeii. December 2005. Looking north-west towards VI.15.18.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. December 2005. Looking north-west towards VI.15.18.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1902 excavation photo of water tower and Porta Vesuvio. The east wall is constructed in opus reticulatum, the same as the west wall. The walls of the gate are older than the Castellum Aquae which has been cut into them. The north wall, also leaning against the walls of the city, is of rougher construction, and is not parallel to the south wall.  See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1903, p. 28, fig. 3. See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1906, p. 97-100.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. 1902 excavation photo of water tower and Porta Vesuvio.

The east wall is constructed in opus reticulatum, the same as the west wall.

The walls of the gate are older than the Castellum Aquae which has been cut into them.

The north wall, also leaning against the walls of the city, is of rougher construction, and is not parallel to the south wall.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1903, p. 28, fig. 3.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1906, p. 97-100.

 

Castellum Acquae Pompeii. May 2010. Three outlets for pipes from water tower. Inside is a cistern which distributed water through three outlets which served different areas of the town.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2010. Three outlets for pipes from water tower.

Inside is a cistern which distributed water through three outlets which served different areas of the town.

 

Castellum Acquae Pompeii. May 2010. Water tower domed ceiling, looking north through central pipe outlet.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2010. Water tower domed ceiling, looking north through central pipe outlet.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2010. Painted figures above inlet channel. The water could be stopped by a sluice which in front of the mouth of the channel. Traces of iron staples remain in the wall. See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1903, p. 27.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2010. Painted figures above inlet channel.

The water could be stopped by a sluice which in front of the mouth of the channel.

Traces of iron staples remain in the wall.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1903, p. 27.

 

Castellum Acquae Pompeii. May 2010. Remains of painted figures above inlet channel inside water tower. According to Mazza these are a river god and three nymphs with a garland above. See Mazza C in Rivista di Studi Pompeiana XVII, 2006, p. 68.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2010. Remains of painted figures above inlet channel inside water tower.

According to Mazza these are a river god and three nymphs with a garland above.

See Mazza C in Rivista di Studi Pompeiana XVII, 2006, p. 68.

 

Castellum Acquae Pompeii. May 2006. Painted figures above inlet channel.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2006. Painted figures above inlet channel.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2010. Aqueduct water inlet channel in rear of water tower. 
Walls a and b are in front.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2010. Aqueduct water inlet channel in rear of water tower.

Walls a and b are in front.

 

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2010. Aqueduct water inlet channel. This is in rear north wall of the water tower has a height of 1.24m. Outside the north-west corner of the Porta del Vesuvio is a fenced water channel pit from where the light at the far end is coming. Water came on the Augustan aqueduct of Serino which brought water from Serino in Avellino province.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. July 2010. Aqueduct water inlet channel.

This is in rear north wall of the water tower has a height of 1.24m.

Outside the north-west corner of the Porta del Vesuvio is a fenced water channel pit from where the light at the far end is coming.

Water came on the Augustan aqueduct of Serino which brought water from Serino in Avellino province.

 

Water tower near to VI.15.18 and VI.16.22/VI.16.23. May 2010. Looking east inside water tower.

Castellum Aquae Pompeii. May 2010. Looking east inside water tower.

 

 

 

Part 2